Financial Statement Analysis
- Ratio Analysis of Financial Statements (Formula, Types, Excel)
- Ratio Analysis Advantages
- Ratio Analysis
- Liquidity Ratios
- Cash Ratio
- Cash Ratio Formula
- Quick Ratio
- Quick Ratio Formula
- Current Ratio
- Current Ratio Formula
- Acid Test Ratio Formula
- Defensive Interval Ratio
- Working Capital Ratio
- Working Capital Formula
- Net Working Capital Formula
- Changes in Net Working Capital
- Change in Net Working Capital (NWC) Formula
- Cash Flow from Operations Ratio
- Cash Flow Per Share
- Cash Reserve Ratio
- Operating Cycle Formula
- Current Ratio vs Quick Ratio
- Bid Ask Spread
- Liquidity vs Solvency
- Liquidity
- Solvency
- Solvency Ratios
- Equity Ratio
- Capital Adequacy Ratio
- Liquidity Risk
- Altman Z Score
- Turnover Ratios
- Inventory Turnover Ratio
- Accounts Receivable Turnover
- Accounts Receivables Turnover Ratio
- Accounts Payable Turnover Ratio
- Days Inventory Outstanding
- Days in Inventory
- Days Sales Outstanding
- Days Sales Uncollected
- Average Collection Period
- Days Payable Outstanding
- Cash Conversion Cycle
- Cash Conversion Cycle (CCC) Formula
- Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio Formula
- Debtor Days Formula
- Working Capital Turnover Ratio
- Profitability Ratios
- Profitability Ratios Formula
- Common Size Income Statement
- Vertical Analysis of Income Statement
- Profit Margin
- Gross Profit Margin Formula
- Gross Profit Percentage
- Operating Profit Margin Formula
- EBIT Margin Formula
- Operating Income Formula
- Net Profit Margin Formula
- EBIDTA Margin
- Degree of Operating Leverage Formula (DOL)
- NOPAT Formula
- OIBDA
- Earnings Per Share
- Basic EPS
- Diluted EPS
- Basic EPS vs Diluted EPS
- Return on Equity (ROE)
- Return on Capital Employed (ROCE)
- Return on Invested Capital (ROIC)
- Return on Sales
- ROIC Formula (Return on Invested Capital)
- Return on Investment Formula (ROI)
- ROIC vs ROCE
- ROE vs ROA
- CFROI
- Cash on Cash Return
- Return on Total Assets (ROA)
- Return on Average Capital Employed
- Capital employed Employed
- Return on Average Assets (ROAA)
- Return on Average Equity (ROAE)
- Return on Assets Formula
- Return on Equity Formula
- DuPont Formula
- Net Interest Margin Formula
- Earnings Per Share Formula
- Diluted EPS Formula
- Contribution Margin Formula
- Unit Contribution Margin
- Revenue Per Employee Ratio
- Operating Leverage
- EBIT vs EBITDA
- EBITDAR
- Capital Gains Yield
- Tax Equivalent Yield
- LTM Revenue
- Operating Expense Ratio Formula
- Overhead Ratio Formula
- Variable Costing Formula
- Capitalization Rate
- Cap Rate Formula
- Comparative Income Statement
- Capacity Utilization Rate Formula
- Total Expense Ratio Formula
- Markup Percentage Formula
- Efficiency Ratios
- Dividend Ratios
- Debt Ratios
- Debt to Equity Ratio
- Debt Coverage Ratio
- Debt Ratio
- Debt to Asset Ratio Formula
- Coverage Ratio
- Coverage Ratio Formula
- Debt to Income Ratio Formula (DTI)
- Capital Gearing Ratio
- Capitalization Ratio
- Overcapitalization
- Interest Coverage Ratio
- Times Interest Earned Ratio
- Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR)
- DSCR Formula (Debt service coverage ratio)
- Financial Leverage Ratio
- Financial Leverage Formula
- Degree of Financial Leverage Formula
- Net Debt Formula
- Leverage Ratios
- Leverage Ratios Formula
- Operating Leverage vs Financial Leverage
- Current Yield
- Debt Yield Ratio
- Solvency Ratio Formula
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Return on Total Assets – Return on Assets of General Motors (5.21%) is greater than that of Ford (3.40%) for FY2016. What does Return on Assets mean? Return on Assets or Return on Total Assets relates to the firm’s earnings to all capital invested in the business. In this article, we will discuss Return on Total Assets in detail.
- What is Return on Total Assets?
- Return on Total Assets Formula
- Interpretation of Return on Total Assets
- Return on Total Assets Example
- Return on Total Assets – Colgate
- Return on Total Assets – Banking Sector
- Limitations of Return on Total Assets
Recommended Courses
If you wish to Ratio Analysis in depth then you may look at Financial Statement analysis guide – Colgate Case Study
What is Return on Total Assets?
Trying to understand how much revenue one firm would earn by employing its assets is not a good measure. So there should be something that is more refined. And the refinement has been done in Return on Total Assets ratio.
When we calculate asset turnover ratio, we take into account the net sales or the net revenue. However, revenue always is not a good predictor of success. There are many organizations which earn good revenue, but when we compare the revenue with the expenses they need to bear, there would hardly be any profit. So comparing net revenue with the total assets wouldn’t solve the issue of the investors that want to invest into the company.
Take an example of Box Inc. Let us have a look at its Asset Turnover Ratio. This asset turnover doesn’t tell us much about the performance of Box Inc.
source: ycharts
However, when we look at the Return on Total Assets of Box Inc, we note that it has been negative all the way. This implies that the company is unable to generate returns with respect to its deployed capital.
source: ycharts
Return on Total Assets Formula
Let’s have a look at the formula of Return on Total Assets –
Return on Total Assets Formula = EBIT / Average Total Assets
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There are diverse opinions on what to take in the numerator of this ratio! Some prefer to take net income as the numerator and others like to put EBIT where they don’t want to take into account the interests and taxes.
- My personal advice is that you should consider EBIT as this term is before interest and taxes (pre-debt and pre-equity).
- Likewise, when we are comparing it with the Denominator i.e. Total Assets, we are taking care of both the Equity as well as Debtholders.
- Net Income / Average Total Assets may be an incorrect comparison, primarily due to its numerator. Net income is the return attributed to the equity holders and denominator – Total Assets considers both Equity and Debt. This means we are comparing apples to oranges 🙂
Let’s talk about the average total assets. What will you take into account while computing a figure of average total assets? We will include everything that is capable to yield value for the owner for more than one year. That means we will include all fixed assets. At the same time, we will also include assets which can easily be converted into cash. That means we would be able to take current assets under total assets. And we will also include intangible assets that have value but they are non-physical in nature, like goodwill. We will not take fictitious assets (e.g. promotional expenses of a business, discount allowed on issue of shares, loss incurred on issue of debentures etc.) into account. Then we would take the figure of the beginning of the year and at the end of the year and would find an average of the total figure.
Interpretation of Return on Total Assets
- The reason we took EBIT for calculating Return on Total Assets is because this would give a holistic picture of the company. And thus the interpretation of the ratio would be much more holistic.
- Let’s say that the investors find out that the Return on Total Assets of a company is more than 20% for the last 5 years. Do you think it’s a good measure to invest into the company for future benefits? The answer is of course, yes! It’s far better to invest into a stable company than a company which produces volatile profits over the years.
- In simple terms, we can say that increase in the Return on Total Assets means better use of assets to generate returns for the firm and decrease in the Return on Total Assets means that the firm has a room for improvement – maybe the firm needs to reduce few expenses or to replace few old assets that are eating out the profits of the company.
Return on Total Assets Example
Let’s understand Return on Total Assets with an example.
Particulars | Company A (in US $) | Company B (in US $) |
Operating Profit – EBIT | 10000 | 8000 |
Taxes | 2000 | 1500 |
Assets at the beginning of the year | 13000 | 14000 |
Assets at the end of the year | 15000 | 16000 |
Let’s do the calculation to find out the Return on Total Assets for both the companies.
First as we have been given Operating Profit and Taxes; we need to calculate the Net Income for both of the companies.
And as we have the assets at the beginning of the year and at the end of the year, we need to find out the average assets for both of the companies.
Company A (in US $) | Company B (in US $) | |
Assets at the beginning of the year (A) | 13000 | 14000 |
Assets at the end of the year (B) | 15000 | 16000 |
Total Assets (A + B) | 28000 | 30000 |
Average Assets [(A + B)/2] | 14000 | 15000 |
Now, let’s calculate the Return on Total Assets for both the companies.
Company A (in US $) | Company B (in US $) | |
Operating Profit EBIT (X) | 10000 | 8000 |
Average Assets (Y) | 14000 | 15000 |
ROTA (X/Y) | 0.75 | 0.53 |
For Company A, the Return on Total Assets is 75%. 75% is a great indicator of success. And if Company A has been generating profits in the range of 40-50%, then investors may easily put their money into the company. However, before investing anything, the investors should cross-check the figures with their annual report and see whether these is an exception or any special point is mentioned or not.
For Company B also the Return on Total Assets is quite good, i.e. 53%. Usually, when a firm achieves 20% or above in computation of Return on Total Assets, it is considered healthy. And more than 40% means, the firm is doing quite good.
Return on Total Assets of Colgate
Now let’s understand the ratio from a practical standpoint. Below is the snapshot of Colgate’s Balance Sheet.
Below is the snapshot of Colgate’s Income Statement. Please note that we need to use EBIT for the Return on Total Assets calculation.
Colgate’s Return on total assets has been declining since 2010. Most recently, it declined to its lowest to 21.9%. Why?
Let’s investigate….
Primarily there can be two reasons that contribute to the decrease – either the denominator i.e. average assets have increased significantly or the Numerator Net Sales have dropped significantly.
In Colgate, we note that the the total assets have decreased in 2015. The decrease in total assets should ideally lead to an increase in the ROTA ratio. This leaves us to look at the Net Sales figure.
Te primary reason for the decrease in sales was the negative impact due to foreign exchange of 11.5%.
Organic sales of Colgate however, increased by 5% in 2015.
Return on Total Assets – Banks
In this section first we will look at few banks and their Return on Total Retail Assets so that we can conclude how good they are doing in terms of generating profit.
source: ycharts
From the above graph, we can now compare the return on total assets of the top global banks.
The highest return on total assets has been generated by Wells Fargo of 1.32% and the lowest return on total assets has been generated by Mitsubhishi UFJ Financials of 0.27%. All other banks’ returns on total assets are between 0.3%-1.3%.
To understand where these banks stand in terms of comparison, we can take an average and compare each bank’s performance. We have taken each bank’s ROTA and the average ROTA is 0.90%. That means many banks which are performing over 0.9% are doing good.
Limitations of Return on Total Assets
- If we take into account Net Income to calculate the ratio, then the picture wouldn’t be holistic as it includes Taxes and Interests (if any). But in case of EBIT in number, we don’t need to worry about that.
- For industries which are asset intensive won’t generate that much income compared to the industries which are not asset intensive. For example, if we take into account an auto industry, to produce auto and as a result of that, profits; the industry first needs to invest a lot in the assets. Thus, in case of auto industry, the ROA won’t be that higher.
- However, in case of services companies where investments in Assets is minimal, then the ROA will be pretty high.
In the final analysis
As an investor, you should definitely find out Return on Total Assets before investing into a company. But along with that you should also consider other metrics like Return on Equity, Return on Invested Capital, Current Ratio, Quick Ratio, Du Pont Analysis and so on and so forth.
Return on Total Assets Ratio Video