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- Accounting Basics
- What are Accounting Principles
- Accounting Cycle
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- Fiscal Year vs Calendar Year | Top Differences | Examples |
- Financial Reporting
- Financial Statements
- Accrual vs Provision
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- Quality of Earnings
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- Sunk Cost
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- IFRS vs US GAAP
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- Accounting for Fair Value Hedges
- Debit vs Credit in Accounting
- Single Entry System in Accounting
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- Journal in Accounting
- General Journal
- Accounting Journal Entry
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- Journal vs Ledger
- General Journal vs General Ledger
- What is Trial Balance ? | Examples | Steps | Prepare | Errors
- Adjusted Trial Balance
- Reconciliation of Books | Types, Best Practices | Useful Tips
- Petty Cash | Meaning | Template | Accounting | Example
- Petty Cash Book
- Debit Note | Debit Notes Accounting & its Top Characteristics
- Credit Note
- Debit Note vs Credit Note | Top 7 Differences (Infographics)
- Drawing Account
- Balance Sheet
- Balance Sheet
- Accounting Equation
- Assets vs Liabilities | Top 9 Differences (with Infographics)
- Trial Balance vs Balance Sheet | Top 10 Differences You Must Know!
- Balance Sheet vs Consolidated Balance Sheet
- Bank vs Company Balance Sheet
- Commitments and Contingencies
- Management Discussion & Analysis
- Revenue Reserve vs Capital Reserve | Top 7 Differences
- Revenue Reserve
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- Capital Receipts vs Revenue Receipts | Top 8 Differences
- Capital Lease vs Operating Lease | Top Differences You Must Know!
- Debt vs Equity Financing | Advantages | Disadvantages | Example
- Internal vs External Financing | Top 7 Differences (Infographics)
- Available for Sale for securities
- Held to Maturity to securities
- Non-Performing Assets (NPA)
- Cash and Cash Equivalents | Examples, List & Top Differences
- Cash Equivalents
- Restricted Cash
- 3 Types of Inventory | Raw Material | WIP | Finished Goods
- Closing Stock
- Inventory vs Stock
- Current Assets
- FIFO vs LIFO
- First In First Out (FIFO)
- Last in First Out (LIFO)
- LIFO Reserve
- Non-Current Assets
- Accounts Receivables? | Definition, Accounting Examples
- Accounts Receivables Factoring
- Trade Receivables
- Net Realizable Value (NRV)
- Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
- Accrued Revenue
- Liquid Assets
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- Marketable Securities on the Balance Sheet | Top Examples
- Trading Securities in Balance Sheet
- Prepaid Expenses
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- Tangible vs Intangible Assets
- Tangible Assets
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- Capital Expenditure (Capex)
- Capex vs Opex
- Salvage Value
- Residual Value
- Fixed Capital vs Working Capital | Top 8 Differences (Infographics)
- Impariment of Assets
- Negative Goodwill
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- Capitalized Interest
- Accounts Payable | Days Payable Outstanding | Formula |
- Current Liabilities | List of Current Liabilities on Balance Sheet
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- Notes Payable
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- Long-Term Debt in Balance Sheet
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- Long-Term Liabilities
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- Triple Net Lease
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- Owners Equity
- Preferred Shares
- Weighted average Shares average outstanding
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- Shareholder Equity vs Net Worth | Top 5 Differences You Must Know!
- Stock vs Option
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- Income Statement
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- Cost of Goods Sold
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- EBIT vs EBITDA | Top Differences | Examples | Calculation
- Depreciation – Formula | Types | Most Comprehensive Guide
- EBITDA vs Operating Income
- Straight Line Depreciation Method
- Sum of Year Digits Method of Depreciation
- Declining Balance Method of Depreciation
- Land Depreciation
- Double Declining Balance Method
- Amortization of Intangible Assets
- Depreciation vs Amortization
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- Tax Shield
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- Percentage of Completion Method
- Interest vs Dividend | Top 9 Differences (with Infographics)
- EBITDA vs Net Income
- EBIT vs Net Income
- EBIT vs Operating Income
- Cost vs Expense
- Accounting Profit vs Economic Profit
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- Income Statement vs Balance Sheet | Top 5 Differences You Must Know!
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- Cash Flow Statement
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- Cash Flow From Financing Activities | Formula & Calculations
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- Cash Flow vs Fund Flow | Top 8 Differences (with Infographics)
- Accounting Careers
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- Accounting vs Financial Management
- Cost Accounting vs Financial Accounting
- Cost Accounting vs Management Accounting
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- Controller vs Comptroller
- Personal Banker Job Description
- Accounting Firms in Australia
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- Top Accounting Firms in US
- Accounting Firms in Singapore
- Accounting Books
In this article, we look at Tax Shield in detail –
- What is Tax Shield
- What is the Importance of tax shield?
- Benefits of Tax shield
- Tax shield on Depreciation
- Tax shield on Interest
- Tax Shield for Individuals
What is Tax Shield?
Tax shield is a reduction in taxable income for an individual or corporation achieved through claiming allowable deduction such as mortgage interest, medical expenditure, charitable donation, amortisation and depreciation.
- This income reduce taxpayer’s taxable income for a given year or defer income taxes into future periods. It is a way to save cash flows and increase the value of a firm.
- The Tax shield strategy can be used to increase the value of a business, since it reduces the tax liability that would otherwise reduce the value of the entity’s assets.
- Tax shields is a path to save cash outflows and appreciate the value of a firm. Tax shield in the way of various forms involves in types of expenditure that is deductible from taxable income.
- In simple words a tax shield is the present value of future tax saving attributes to the tax to the tax deductibility of a particular expenditure in Profit and Loss Account.
What is the Importance of tax shield?
Tax shield lower tax bills, which is one of the major reason why taxpayers whether individual or corporation spend a considerable amount of time determining which deduction and credits they qualify for each year.
Benefits of Tax shield
There are various items/expenses whether it is cash or non cash on which an Individual or Corporation claims the tax shield benefits.
The followings are some of the cases:
- Tax Shield on Depreciation
- Tax Shield on Interest
- Tax Shield for Individuals
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Tax shield on Depreciation
- Tax shield on depreciation is the proper management of assets for saving the tax. A depreciation tax shield is a tax reduction technique under which depreciation expenses is subtracted from taxable income.
- This is a non cash item but we get deduction from our taxable income. This will become a major source of cash inflow which we saved by not giving tax on depreciation amount.
- It’s just like a provision we creates every year in respect of its capital expenditure.
Tax Shield Calculation on Depreciation Example
A company is reviewing an investment proposal in a project involving as capital outlay of $90,00,000 in a plant and machinery. The project would have a life of 5 years at the end of which the plant and machinery could fetch value of $30,00,000.
Further the project would also need a working capital of $ 12,50,000 which would be built during the year 1 and to be released from the project at the end of year 5. The project is expected to yield the following cash profits:
|Cash profits ($ )||35,||30||25||20||20|
A 25 % depreciation for plant and machinery is available on accelerated depreciation basis as Income tax exemption. Assume that the corporate tax is paid one year in arrear of the periods to which it relates and the first year’s depreciation allowance, would be claimed against the profits of year 1.
The Management accountant has calculated Net Present Value (NPV) of the project using company’s corporate target of 20 % pre-tax rate of return and has considered the taxation effect in the cash flows. The project’s cash flows should incorporate the effects of tax. The corporate tax is expected to be 35 % during the life of the project and thus the company’s rate of return post-tax is 13 % (20 % * 65 %).
- To calculate post tax cash flow at a post-tax rate.
- Calculate the net present value (NPV) of the project taking the tax shield formula into consideration.
Tax on cash profit ($ in ‘00,000s)
|Year of profit||Cash profit||Tax@35 %||Year of tax payment|
Depreciation Allowances- Tax Rebate ($ in ‘00,000)
|Year||Reducing Balance||Depreciation@ 25 %||Tax rebate/ ( Tax payable) 35 % on depreciation||Year of cash flow|
|Profit on sale of Plant and machinery (30.000 – 21.357)||(8.643)||(3.025)||6|
Calculation of NPV of the project ($ in ‘00,000)
|Year||Investment||Depreciation allowance tax saved||Cash profits||Tax on profits||Net cash flow||Discounting factor at 13 %||Present Value|
|Plant and Machinery||Working Capital|
|Net Present Value||1.57|
- * (3.025) + 2.492 = (0.533)
Tax shield on Interest
Interest Shield in case of company or corporations
One of the major important objective of a corporation or firm or organisation is to reduce its tax liability for which he has to compute
- The tax advantage of debt.
- Computing the interest tax shield.
Valuation of interest tax shield.
- Capitalize or Recapitalize the value of firm.
- Limits on the tax benefits of the debt.
Interest expenses is, as opposed to dividends and capital gains, tax deductible, therefore the tax shield is an important factor. These are the tax benefits derived from creative structuring of a financial arrangement. The tax shield on interest is positive when earnings before interest and taxes i.e. EBIT exceeds the interest payment. The value of the interest tax shield is the present value i.e. PV of all future interest tax shields. Also the value of a levered firm or organisation exceeds the value of an else equal unlevered firm or organisation by the value of the interest tax shield. Lease option is one of the live example for utilization of tax shield.
Interest Tax Shield Calculation Example
ABC Ltd. is considering a proposal to acquire a machine costing $ 1,10,000 payable $ 10,000 down and balance payable in 10 equal installments at, the end of each year inclusive of interest chargeable at 15 %. Another option before it is to acquire the asset on a lease rental of $ 25,000 per annum payable at the end of each year for 10 years. The following information is also available below. Present value factor of 15 % for 10 years is 5.019.
- Terminal scrap value of $ 20,000 is realizable, if the asset is purchased.
- The company provides 10 % depreciation on straight line method on original cost.
- Income tax rate is 50 %.
- You are required to compute and analyse cash flow and to advise as to which option is better.
Option 1 – Buy
- In this option the firm has to pay $ 10,000 down and the balance $ 1,00,000 together with interest @ 15 % is payable in 10 equal installments. The annuity amount may be calculated for 10 years at 15 % as i.e.,
Annual repayment = $ 1,00,000/5.019 = $ 19925.
- Discounting rate : we can use the after tax cost of debt as discounting rate for both options. We can also use the borrowing rate as weighted average cost of capital (WACC) and assume that this proposal is already considered in the calculation of weighted average cost of capital (WACC). We therefore assume that the firm’s WACC is 15 %( the borrowing rate is given above).
Since we have to use the same rate for leasing and borrowing option; there will be no change in final decision, though answers would be different.
- Depreciation of 10% i.e. $ 11,000 ($ 1,10,000 * 10 %) has been provided for all the years.
- The asset is fully depreciated during its life of 10 years, therefore, the book value at the end of 10th year would be zero. As the asset is having salvage value of $ 20,000, this would be capital gain, and presuming it to be taxable at the normal rate of 50 %, the net cash inflow on account of salvage value would be $ 10,000 only i.e. ($ 20,000 * 50 %). This is further discounted to find out the present value of this inflow.
The cash flow of the interest in the purchase option may be calculated as follows:
( Amount in $ )
|A||B||C =15 %||D = B-C||E|
|Year||Instalment ($)||Interest ($)||Repayment ($)||Balance ($)|
The Present value of cash outflows may now be found as follows:
( Amount in $)
|Year||Payment||Interest||Depreciation||Tax shield 50 %||Net cash flow||Present value factor (15 %n)||Present value|
|1||2||3||4||5 = (3+4) * 50 %||6 = (2-5)||7||8|
|Present value of total cash outflows – (A)||53,806|
|Salvage value ( after tax ) – (B)||10,000||0.247||2,470|
|Net present value of cash outflows – (C) = (A) + (B)||51,336|
Option II – leasing
Evaluation of Lease option. – In case, the asset is acquired on the lease, there is an annual lease rent of $ 25,000 payable at the end of the next 10 years. This lease rental is tax deductible; therefore, the net cash outflow would be only $ 12,500 i.e. ( $ 25,000 * 50 % ). The present value annuity factor for 10 years at a rate of 15 % is already provided above i.e. 5.019.
So, the present value of annuity will be calculated as $ 12,500 * 5.019 = $ 62738.
By comparing the above two option calculated we came to the conclusion that the present value in case of buying by taking tax shield is lower than the lease option.
Therefore it is advisable to go for the buying option (go for lower expense)
Tax Shield for Individuals
One of the best illustration of tax shield strategy for an Individual is to acquire a home with a mortgage or loan. The interest expenses associated with the mortgage or loan is tax deductible, which then offset against the taxable income of the person, resulting in a significant reduction in his or her tax liability. The ability to use housing loan as a tax shield is a major benefit for middle-class people whose houses are major components of their net worth. It also makes beneficiary to those who are interested in purchasing of the house, by providing a specific tax benefit to the borrower.
Tax Shield Example for Individual
Suppose a cash outflow, interest or salary expenses, is $ 1,000/- and rate of income tax is 30 percent. So the cash outflow which will consider for discounting would be
$ 700/- i.e. $ 1000* (100-30) %.
- Tax shield on Medical expenditure- The taxpayers who have paid more in medical expenses than covered by the standard deduction can choose to itemize in order to gain a huge tax shield.
- Tax shield on Charity- Charitable giving can also lower a taxpayer’s obligations. In the manner to qualify, the taxpayer must use itemised deductions on his tax return.
Finally, we conclude on account of above-stated cases that tax shield can be utilised as a valuable option for effective evaluation of cash flow, financing etc. activities.
So what we need to be understood is tax shields is an important aspect of business valuation and vary from country to country, and their benefits depend upon the taxpayer ’s overall tax rate and cash flow for the given tax year. Governments often create tax shield as a way to encourage certain behavior or investment in certain industries or programs.