Carbon Accounting

Updated on January 24, 2024
Article byShrestha Ghosal
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

What Is Carbon Accounting?

Carbon accounting is the systematic process for evaluating a company’s carbon emissions. Its primary objective is to provide accurate insights into an entity’s carbon footprint. This process involves quantifying, tracking, and managing carbon dioxide removals and emissions generated by various business activities, including industrial processes, transportation, and energy production.

Carbon Accounting

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This method includes collecting and analyzing carbon emissions data and the factors contributing to their release or absorption across an organization or system. Organizations can identify areas of high impact by establishing a measurement system of carbon output and implementing strategies to minimize environmental harm. It enables informed decision-making, helps reduce overall emissions, and enhances sustainability efforts.

Key Takeaways

  • Carbon accounting is a systematic procedure for measuring the carbon emitted by companies. It aims to provide valuable insights into a company’s carbon footprint.
  • This accounting process includes monitoring, gathering, and assessing data associated with carbon emissions, including the factors responsible for their emission in an organization.
  • It allows organizations to recognize the high-impact areas by setting up a measurement system for carbon emissions. It aids in implementing policies and practices to mitigate environmental damage.
  • This method allows companies to make informed decisions to reduce carbon emissions and increase their efforts for sustainable business strategies.

Carbon Accounting Explained

Carbon accounting is a comprehensive approach to measuring, assessing, and managing carbon emissions and removals associated with business activities. It encompasses collecting, analyzing, and reporting data associated with carbon release and absorption across various domains and business processes. The primary purpose of this accounting is to provide a clear and accurate understanding of an entity’s carbon footprint, which is the total amount of carbon emitted directly or indirectly due to its operations.

Carbon accounting serves as a powerful tool for informed decision-making and implanting sustainable practices and strategies. These strategies include adopting energy-efficient technologies, transitioning to renewable energy sources, optimizing transportation logistics, and implementing sustainable land use practices. Furthermore, it plays a pivotal role in regulatory compliance and international agreements focused on mitigating climate change. Governments and regulatory bodies often require organizations to report their carbon emissions, and many industries are advised to establish emissions reduction targets.

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The carbon accounting methodologies are:

  • Spend-based method: This method considers a purchased good or service’s financial value and multiplies it with an emission factor. This helps measure the emissions produced per monetary unit.
  • Activity-based method: In this method, the company uses data to mention how many units of a particular product or material it has purchased.
  • Hybrid method: This methodology blends the spend-based process with the activity-based data. This is the recommended approach by the Greenhouse Gas Protocol as it provides a comprehensive evaluation by using activity-based data and then applying spend-based methods to estimate the rest.

Scope 1, 2, And 3 Emissions

The scope is the extent of carbon emissions that companies or activities produce. They are divided into the following categories:

  • Scope 1 Emissions: It includes the direct emissions from company vehicles, fuel used for production, etc.
  • Scope 2 Emissions: This includes indirect emissions resulting from the purchased electricity, steam, heating, and cooling.
  • Scope 3 Emissions: It comprises all other indirect emissions from the various production processes and is not included in the Scope 2 emissions. It includes business activities like emissions from sold products and purchased goods and services, business travel, and transport.


Let us go through the following examples to understand this accounting process:

Example #1

Suppose Panache Beauty is a company that makes and sells cosmetics products. To evaluate its carbon footprint, the company started considering everything that goes into making the products, including the materials used and transportation processes. Each step releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Using carbon accounting, Panache Beauty can measure the total carbon dioxide emitted during all these processes. With this information, they can find ways to reduce emissions, like using more sustainable materials or optimizing their transportation routes.

Example #2

On June 26, 2023, the International Sustainability Standards Board (ISSB) announced its first standards, IFRS S1 and IFRS S2. These standards will be put into use from 2024. According to these standards, companies worldwide must follow a uniform set of sustainable practices and carbon accounting standards. Presently, most large organizations report their annual carbon footprint. However, the data produced by them is not always reliable. Thus, in 2021 the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) Foundation decided to issue guidelines to help fill that gap and created a special board to work on sustainability disclosure standards.


The importance of carbon accounting frameworks is as follows:

  • This accounting allows us to assess the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by various activities, helping us understand the scale of our environmental impact.
  • It enables organizations, industries, and governments to set realistic emissions reduction targets, aligning with international agreements and local environmental regulations.
  • The accounting process helps track progress toward emission reduction goals over time, ensuring accountability and transparency in environmental efforts.
  • Businesses can make informed decisions to adopt energy-efficient practices, transition to renewable energy sources, optimize transportation, and implement sustainable practices. As a result, it reduces costs and improves long-term feasibility.
  • Embracing this accounting demonstrates a commitment to environmental responsibility, enhancing brand reputation, and attracting environmentally-conscious customers and investors.
  • Contributes to global efforts to limit global temperature rise, combat climate change, and protect ecosystems by allowing collective action on a larger scale.


The benefits of carbon accounting are:

  • Organizations can develop targeted strategies to reduce carbon emissions by identifying high-emission areas and contributing to global efforts to combat climate change.
  • Implementing energy-efficient practices and optimizing resource use lowers emissions and reduces operating costs.
  • This accounting helps businesses adhere to environmental regulations and meet reporting requirements, avoiding potential fines and legal consequences.
  • Displaying a commitment to carbon reduction enhances brand reputation, attracting environmentally conscious customers and investors.
  • One of the significant benefits of carbon accounting is that it drives innovation by inspiring the development of new technologies and sustainable practices, promoting a culture of continuous improvement.
  • Increasingly, markets are favoring eco-friendly products and services. This accounting enables businesses to access these growing markets and gain a competitive advantage.


Some of the carbon accounting framework challenges are:

  • Gathering accurate and reliable data on emissions across complex supply chains and processes can take time, resulting in potential calculation inaccuracies.
  • Defining the boundaries of what to include in this accounting can be complex and may vary based on standards and methodologies. As a result, the calculation processes may differ and lack common standards.
  • This process involves intricate calculations and methodologies that may be difficult to understand and apply consistently, especially for small and medium-sized businesses.
  • Implementing it may require dedicated resources, time, and expertise, which could be an issue for organizations with limited capacity.
  • Evolving environmental regulations may result in uncertainty and additional compliance burdens for organizations.
  • Accurate accounting relies on advanced technology and data systems, which may pose challenges for organizations lacking the necessary infrastructure.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is the difference between GHG and carbon accounting?

GHG accounting comprises the measurement and management of various gases that contribute to climate change, including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and many others. This method considers a broader range of gases that companies emit. However, carbon accounting methodologies specifically focus on tracking and quantifying carbon dioxide emissions and removals. It reflects an organization’s carbon footprint.

2. Is carbon accounting mandatory?

This accounting is not universally mandatory. However, it is increasingly becoming a crucial practice for organizations worldwide. Many jurisdictions and industries are implementing regulations and standards requiring companies to measure, report, and reduce carbon emissions. Moreover, businesses are voluntarily adopting this accounting as part of their sustainability efforts and to meet consumer demands for environmentally responsible practices. Adopting this accounting helps organizations lower environmental risks, enhance their reputation, and contribute to overall efforts for a more sustainable future.

3. What is the future of carbon accounting?

The future of carbon accounting promises greater integration, precision, and impact. Advanced technologies like AI and blockchain will enhance data collection and accuracy. Standardization efforts will lead to consistent reporting and comparability, helping overall global initiatives. As climate concerns escalate, this accounting will become a fundamental business practice.

This article has been a guide to what is Carbon Accounting. We explain its methodologies, scope 1, 2, 3 emissions, examples, benefits, importance, and challenges. You may also find some useful articles here –

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