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Communism vs Fascism

Updated on April 19, 2024
Article byAswathi Jayachandran
Edited byAshish Kumar Srivastav
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

Difference Between Communism and Fascism

The primary difference between the ideologies of communism and fascism lies in their motto. The communistic ideology aimed for a classless society where the control of production belonged to the state and there is economic equality between individuals. Fascism is a system, that executes strict class roles in society often controlled by a solo dictator. It relies on extreme nationalism among its people and suppresses all forms of oppositions. It supported private production as long as it served nationalistic purposes.

Communism vs Fascism

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Key Takeaways

  • Communism was rooted in the concept of full control of production by a central authority, eliminating economic inequalities. Fascism concentrated more on the idea of building a strong nation, fed by a sense of unity fueled by belongingness and patriotism. 
  • Communism did not entertain but rather wanted to abolish the concept of private ownership. Fascism supported private production as long as it supported and contributed to developing a self-reliant nation.
  • Regardless of ideological differences between Communism vs Fascism, they both depart from the concept of democracy

Communism vs Fascism – Comparative Table 

ParticularsCommunism Fascism
 IdeologyCommunism supported the idea of all resources and property being controlled and owned by the state or the community. The aim of this control was to distribute the resources among the people in the community according to their needs.Fascism, on the other hand, did not outrightly support the idea of the distribution of resources. Instead, its focus was on building a self-reliant nation.
Advocates A classless society was the major goal of communism where there existed no difference between the bourgeoisie (the owners of production and the wealthy) and the poor people and the labor class Fascism, on the other hand, had firm class roles. Every member of the community had specific roles and duties to fulfill. It also advocated a strong sense of nationalism.
Production control    Communism wanted the control of resources and their distribution amongst its people. Hence, the production control was to be under the state only.  Fascism wanted self-sufficiency to survive and to not be in trade with other countries. Hence, they did not mind the idea of private enterprises entering into production.  
Private propertyCommunism wanted to abolish the idea of private ownership and property.Fascism permitted their existence on the grounds of their usefulness to the state.
DictatorshipCommunism favored full control of the state and did not specifically mean dictatorship under one person.Fascism, on the other hand, wanted national unity and a strong sense of pride. Consequently, it employed cruel methods of suppression of the oppressed. This was possible only through strong leadership and hence permitted the formation of dictatorships.
Gender equalityGender equality was not much of an issue. People were allowed to work irrespective of their gender.Fascism supported traditional gender roles. Men were to work and go to war. On the other hand, women were expected to procreate because they were the key to racial or national continuity.  
EmergenceThe fear of class oppression sparked the rise of communism.Fascism wanted to stop oppression as a nation.
 Prominent figures  Communism resonates with personalities such as Karl Marx (German Philosopher), Friedrich Engels (German Philosopher), and Vladimir Lenin (Prime Minister of the Soviet Union.)  Benito Mussolini (Italian Dictator), Engelbert Dollfuss (Chancellor of Austria), and Giovanni Gentile (Italian Philosopher) were a few known for their fascist ideologies.  
Examples  Communism existed in countries such as China, Russia (during Stalin’s reign), North Korea, and Cuba.  Fascism had existed in countries such as Germany and Italy.      

Communism vs Fascism Infographics

Let’s see the top differences between Communism vs Fascism.

Communism vs Fascism Infographics

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What is Communism? 

CommunismCommunismCommunism is an ideology that bases itself on the belief that the means of production in a society should belong to the state.read more is an ideology that intends to replace private property and a profit-based economyEconomyAn economy comprises individuals, commercial entities, and the government involved in the production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of products and services in a society.read more with public ownership. In communism, the community controls the major means of production and the natural resources present in society. It can therefore be described as a higher form of socialism. It is an economic and political philosophy founded by Karl Marx along with Friedrich Engels in the latter half of the 19th century. The belief that the wealthy exploited worker populations and that societies would develop class consciousness was the start of this concept. Leaders believed that it would lead to a conflict that would be resolved by way of a revolutionary struggle. This conflict will make the proletariat (worker population) rise against the bourgeoisie and finally establish a communist society. 

In a communist society, the aim is to achieve a state where the government would abolish all private ownership. In other words, the means of production belong to the entire community and not be concentrated only in certain pockets. Therefore, a common motto throughout the communist movement is that everyone gave according to their ability and received according to their needs. As a result, the requirements of society would take precedence over the needs of an individual.

What is Fascism? 

Fascism is an ideology that advocates the superiority of the nation. “Nation” here can refer to a group or collection of people with a sense of belonging. It could be based on geography, ethnicity, or culture. All these could follow a fascist path, elevating nationalism above all other forms of loyalty. Here, the goal was to create a strong sense of nationalistic dictatorship that regulated and steered the economy. In addition, it wanted to transform the nation into something magnificent with a self-determined structure and culture. In short, it can be described as a type of authoritarian ultra-nationalism that didn’t mind achieving results by suppressing opposition.

It opposed liberal democracy and favored a one-party system. In addition, it was a system that rejected the ideas of socialism and capitalismCapitalismCapitalism is an economic system consisting of businesses, resources, capital goods, and labour. Private entities own it, and the income is derived by the level of production of these factors. Because of the private hands, these entities can be operated efficiently and maximize their production activity also.read more. Fascism, unlike these ideologies, advocated self-sufficiency through economic control. Besides, history shows that fascism supported violence in the name of politics. This was perceived as legitimate for the purpose of domination. Hence, we can understand that the yearning for national unity under strong leadership was a reason for the rise of fascism.

Communism vs Fascism – Similarities

Democracy:

In a democracy, the political system allows private ownership of goods and services. It allowed private enterprises to have the liberty of producing goods and services. Communism was against this kind of freedom and hence opposed the idea of democracy in this form.

Fascism, on the other hand, was hand-rooted in dictatorship and supremacy of the sense of belonging. It overthrew the cries for freedom of the oppressed and therefore opposed democracy. 

Origin:

Communism originated in the second part of the 19th century in Europe. Fascism also emerged in the 19th century after being triggered by the World war in Europe.

Sense of individualism:

Communism puts society’s needs before the satisfaction of individual needs. On the other hand, fascism wanted to build a nation and wanted people to support it, valuing nationalism beyond a sense of individualism.

This has been a guide to Communism vs Fascism. Here we discuss the top differences between the two terms along with infographics and a comparative table. You may also have a look at the following articles –

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