Social Justice

Updated on January 31, 2024
Article byKosha Mehta
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

Social Justice Definition

Social justice is a concept rooted in the pursuit of fairness, equality, and equitable opportunities for all individuals within a society, regardless of their background or identity. Its purpose is to create a society where every person can enjoy equal rights, access to resources, and opportunities for personal and collective growth.

Social Justice

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It seeks to eliminate discrimination, prejudice, and oppression and foster an environment that promotes the well-being and flourishing of all individuals. It is important as it strives to build a more just and equitable world where individuals can live with dignity, fairness, and mutual respect, enabling them to fully participate and contribute to society.

Key Takeaways

  1. Social justice aims to promote fairness, equality, and inclusivity, addressing systemic inequalities and discrimination based on race, gender, and socioeconomic status.
  2. It emphasizes protecting human rights, recognizing every individual’s inherent worth and dignity, and striving to create a society where everyone has access to basic rights, resources, and opportunities.
  3. It requires collective action, solidarity, and policy changes to challenge oppressive structures, promote diversity, and create a more just and inclusive society where all individuals can thrive and contribute.
  4. By addressing social injustices, social justice fosters social cohesion, economic stability, and sustainable development, ensuring a more equitable and harmonious world for present and future generations.

Social Justice Explained

Social justice is a framework and principles to achieve fairness, equality, and inclusivity. It recognizes that various forms of systemic oppression and discrimination exist, such as those based on race, gender, socioeconomic status, and more, and seeks to address and rectify these injustices. Social justice emphasizes promoting equal rights, opportunities, and resources for all individuals, regardless of their background or identity.

Social justice aims to create a society where everyone can access basic human rights, such as education, healthcare, housing, and employment. It strives to dismantle discriminatory practices and structures that perpetuate inequality and marginalization. By advocating for social and policy changes, social justice ensures that marginalized groups are empowered, their voices are heard, and their needs are met.

Social justice is important because it recognizes every individual’s inherent dignity and worth and works towards building a more equitable and inclusive society. It challenges oppressive systems, promotes empathy and understanding, and fosters a sense of collective responsibility for creating positive change. By addressing social injustices, social justice helps to create a more just and harmonious world for all individuals to thrive and reach their full potential.

It encompasses human rights, dignity, and inclusivity principles, aiming to address and rectify systemic injustices and disparities in various dimensions, such as race, gender, class, and more.

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The concept of social justice has a long history that can be traced back to ancient civilizations and various philosophical and religious traditions. Throughout history, individuals and groups have recognized and fought against injustices, advocating for greater societal equality and fairness.

One of the earliest known instances of social justice can be found in ancient Mesopotamia, where the Code of Hammurabi, was established around 1754 BCE. It included laws that aimed to protect the rights of vulnerable groups, such as widows, orphans, and slaves.

In ancient Greece, philosophers like Plato and Aristotle discussed the importance of justice and fairness in society. Plato’s “Republic” proposed an ideal society based on justice and the equitable distribution of resources. Aristotle emphasized the concept of distributive justice, which involves the fair allocation of goods and benefits in society.

During the Renaissance and Enlightenment periods, thinkers such as Thomas More, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau debated issues of social inequality. They advocated for the protection of individual rights and liberties. The French Revolution in the late 18th century further highlighted the demand for equality, as expressed in the motto “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity.”

The 19th and 20th centuries witnessed significant social justice movements, including the abolitionist, women’s suffrage, civil rights, and labor movements. These movements sought to address systemic inequalities and fight against discrimination based on race, gender, and class.

In the 20th century, the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948, marked a major milestone in the global recognition of social justice. It affirmed the rights and dignity of all individuals, regardless of their background, and set the stage for subsequent international efforts to promote equality and social justice.


Let us look at the principles of social justice:

  1. Equality: Social justice emphasizes the need for fairness and equal access to opportunities, resources, and benefits for all individuals. It recognizes that different people may require different support and accommodations to achieve equality.
  2. Human Rights: Social justice is deeply rooted in human rights principles. It asserts that every person has inherent dignity and is entitled to certain fundamental rights and freedoms. These include rights to life, liberty, security, education, healthcare, and more.
  3. Solidarity: Social justice emphasizes the importance of collective action and solidarity among individuals and groups. It recognizes that systemic injustices can only be effectively addressed by working together to challenge oppressive structures and policies.
  4. Empowerment: Social justice seeks to empower marginalized and oppressed individuals and communities. It aims to amplify their voices, ensure their participation in decision-making processes, and provide them with the tools, resources, and opportunities to advocate for their rights and improve their circumstances.


Let us look at some issues regarding social justice:

  1. Racial Justice: Addressing racial inequalities, systemic racism, and discrimination based on race or ethnicity. This includes advocating for equal treatment, combating racial profiling, promoting diversity and inclusion, and working toward racial reconciliation.
  2. Gender Equality: Achieving equality between genders, including addressing gender-based discrimination and violence against women and empowering women and girls. This also includes advocating for LGBTQ+ rights and addressing issues related to gender identity and sexual orientation.
  3. Economic Justice: Tackling income inequality, poverty, and economic disparities. This involves advocating for fair wages, access to quality education and healthcare, affordable housing, and social safety nets.
  4. Social Inclusion: Ensuring that all individuals, regardless of background or identity, have equal opportunities for social participation and inclusion. This includes addressing issues related to disability rights, immigrant rights, indigenous rights, and the rights of marginalized and vulnerable populations.


Let us look at the examples to understand the concept better.

Example #1

As per an article by the Indian Labour Association, social justice plays a crucial role in promoting inclusive and sustainable development. There is a call to establish a Global Coalition to emphasize the centrality of social justice in the global recovery and ensure a people-focused future. This Coalition aims to unite various international bodies and stakeholders. It fosters a balanced approach between environmental, economic, and social considerations. Its objective is to promote policy coherence, invest in social protection and decent work, and contribute to the reform of the international financial architecture. While presenting the report “Advancing Social Justice,” the Director-General highlighted the importance of using diplomacy to bridge differences, prevent division, entrenchment, and polarization of opinions. This effort is a moral obligation to create common ground and foster understanding among diverse groups.

Example #2

Consider a city called Harmonyville, where there are significant disparities in access to education based on socioeconomic status. The wealthier neighborhoods in Harmonyville have well-funded schools with modern facilities, highly qualified teachers, and a wide range of educational resources. In contrast, the poorer neighborhoods struggle with underfunded schools, outdated infrastructure, and a lack of resources and extracurricular activities.

In this scenario, social justice would seek to address these disparities and create a more equitable education system. Social justice advocates might work towards implementing policies that ensure equal funding for all schools, regardless of their location or the students’ socioeconomic background. They might push for initiatives to provide additional resources and support to disadvantaged schools. Like technology access, after-school programs, and tutoring services.

Furthermore, social justice activists might advocate for policies that address the root causes of educational inequities, such as affordable housing initiatives that help reduce residential segregation and promote diverse communities. They might also call for reforms in the distribution of educational resources. It ensures that every student has equal access to quality teachers, textbooks, and learning materials. Through these efforts, social justice aims to level the playing field and provide every student in Harmonyville with an equal opportunity to receive a high-quality education, regardless of their socioeconomic background.


The importance of social justice lies in its potential to create a more equitable and inclusive society. Here are several reasons why social justice is crucial:

  1. Fairness and Equality: Social justice ensures all individuals have an equal opportunity to thrive and reach their full potential. It challenges the unequal distribution of resources, power, and opportunities that can perpetuate systemic injustices. By promoting fairness and equality, social justice fosters a more just society where everyone has a chance to succeed, regardless of their background or identity.
  2. Human Dignity: Social justice recognizes every individual’s inherent worth and dignity. It strives to protect and uphold the basic human rights and freedoms that all individuals are entitled to. By addressing injustices and fighting against discrimination, social justice affirms the value and importance of each person. It fosters a society that respects and honors human dignity.
  3. Social Cohesion: By addressing inequalities and working towards a more just society, social justice helps to build social cohesion. It fosters a sense of belonging and shared responsibility among individuals and communities, promoting cooperation and solidarity.
  4. Economic Stability: Social justice plays a vital role in addressing economic inequalities. By advocating for fair wages, access to education and healthcare, and social safety nets, social justice helps to reduce poverty. It creates a more stable and resilient economy.

Social Justice vs Economic Justice

Let us look at the differences between social justice and economic justice:

AspectSocial JusticeEconomic Justice
FocusAddresses inequalities and discrimination based on identity factors such as race, gender, and disability.Focuses on addressing economic disparities and ensuring equitable distribution of resources.
ScopeEncompasses various social issues, including education, healthcare, criminal justice, and human rights.Primarily focuses on economic issues such as income inequality, wealth distribution, and labor rights.
ObjectivesPromotes fairness, equality, inclusivity, and human dignity in all aspects of society.Aims to achieve economic equality, provide equal opportunities, and address poverty and socioeconomic disparities.
ApproachAdvocates for policy changes, awareness, and social transformation to eliminate systemic injustices.Advocates for economic reforms, redistribution of wealth, and equitable access to resources and opportunities.
InterconnectionRecognizes the interplay between social and economic factors and how they intersect to create injustices.Acknowledges that economic inequalities can lead to social disparities and vice versa, emphasizing the need to address both.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is the relationship between social justice and equality?

Social justice and equality are closely interconnected. While equality focuses on treating everyone equally, social justice goes beyond that by recognizing and addressing certain groups’ systemic disadvantages and barriers. Social justice acknowledges that achieving true equality may require different levels of support and accommodations for individuals and groups who have been historically marginalized or oppressed.

2. How does social justice differ from charity or philanthropy?

While charity and philanthropy involve giving and assisting those in need, social justice takes a broader and more systemic approach. Social justice addresses the root causes of social inequalities and injustices, aiming for long-term structural changes. It challenges and transforms the systems, policies, and institutions perpetuating inequality and discrimination.

3. Can social justice be achieved without addressing economic inequalities?

Addressing economic inequalities is a critical aspect of social justice. Economic disparities often intersect with other forms of inequality, such as race or gender, and contribute to systemic injustices. Social justice ensures that resources and opportunities are distributed more equitably to create a fairer society. It involves advocating for fair wages, access to education, healthcare, affordable housing, and social safety nets.

This has been a guide to What is Social Justice. We discuss its history, principles, issues, examples, importance and compared with Economic Justice. You can learn more about it from the following articles –

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