What is Variable Costing Income Statement?
The variable costing income statement is one where all variable expenses are subtracted from revenue, which results in contribution marginContribution MarginThe contribution margin is a metric that shows how much a company's net sales contribute to fixed expenses and net profit after covering the variable expenses. As a result, we deduct the total variable expenses from the net sales when computing the contribution.. From this, all fixed expenses are then subtracted to arrive at the net profit or loss for the period. It is useful to determine the proportion of expenses that actually varies directly with revenues.
In many businesses, the contribution margin will be substantially higher than the gross margin, because such a large amount of its production costs are fixed, and a few of its selling and administrative expenses are variable.
The formula for Net profit or loss is:-
- Contribution Margin =Revenue – Variable Production Expenses – Variable Selling and administrative expenses
- Net profit or Loss = Contribution Margin – Fixed production expenses – Fixed Selling and administrative expenses
Examples of Variable Costing Income Statement
A company named ABC Cotton sells cotton $30 per Kg. The data for the year 2016 is given below:-
- Sales in Kg- 80,000 kgs
- Finished goods inventory at the beginning of the period- 15,000 kgs
- Finished goods inventoryFinished Goods InventoryFinished goods inventory refers to the final products acquired from the manufacturing process or through merchandise. It is the end product of the company, which is ready to be sold in the market. at the closing of the period-20,000 kgs
- Variable costs- $10 per Kg
- Fixed manufacturing expense cost- $ 3,00,000 per year
Marketing and administrative expenses-
- Variable expenses- $5 per kg of sale
- Fixed expense- $2,50,000 per year
Through the above information, we have prepared a variable cost income statement.
Let us understand how this statement is prepared
Sales are calculated, which is a total sale in kgs, i.e., 80000 multiply by per kg cost, i.e., $30.
=Total Sale*Rate per kg
Calculate variable Opening Inventory
Opening Inventory that is finished goods inventory at the beginning of the period, i.e., 15000 kgs multiplies by manufacturing variable cost, i.e., $ 10. So,
= finished goods inventory at the beginning of the period* manufacturing variable cost
The variable cost of manufactured goods is
=(Total sale + Finished goods inventory at the closing of the period – Finished goods inventory at the beginning of the period)*manufacturing variable cost
The variable cost of good available for saleCost Of Good Available For SaleThe cost of goods available for sale refers to the cost of total goods produced during the year after accounting for the cost of finished goods inventory at the beginning of the year and is available for sale to the end-users.
=Variable cost of manufacture goods + Opening Inventory
Calculate the closing inventory that is
=Finished goods inventory at the closing of the period* manufacturing variable cost
Now, we will get the Gross contribution margin
Gross contribution margin = Total Sales – Variable cost of goods available for sales – closing inventory
Calculate variable marketing and administration expense which is
=Total sale*Variable Marketing and administrative expenses
Contribution margin calculated i.e.
=Gross contribution margin – variable marketing and administration expenses
Now, we have to calculate fixed expenses
= Fixed manufacturing expense cost + Fixed marketing and administrative expenses
Finally, we will get net operating income
= Contribution margin – Fixed expenses
Total Production during year = Total sales + Closing inventory – Opening Inventory
Manufacturing expenses per unit=Variable expense + Fixed Expense
Hence, we found that net operating incomeNet Operating IncomeNet Operating Income (NOI) is a measure of profitability representing the amount earned from its core operations by deducting operating expenses from operating revenue. It excludes non-operating costs such as loss on sale of a capital asset, interest, tax expenses. with variable costing income principle.
Normal Income vs. Variable Costing Income Statement
- The Normal income statementNormal Income StatementThe income statement is one of the company's financial reports that summarizes all of the company's revenues and expenses over time in order to determine the company's profit or loss and measure its business activity over time based on user requirements. has a gross margin, whereas variable costing income statements have a contribution margin.
- In variable costing income statements, all variable selling and administrative expenses group with variable production cost. It is a part of the contribution margin.
- All fixed production costs aggregate lower in a statement, after the contribution margin in variable costing income statements.
The key difference between gross margin and contribution margin is that in gross margin, fixed production costs include in the cost of goods. Whereas in contribution margin, fixed production costs do not include in the same calculation. This means that variable costing income statements is sorted based on the variability of the underlying cost information, rather than by functional areas or expenses categories that are found in a typical income statement.
Under both statements, the net profit or loss will be the same.
- Variable cost provides a better understanding of the effect of fixed costs on the net profit in variable cost income statements.
- Through variable cost income statements, companies get the necessary income for cost volume profit (CVP) analysisCost Volume Profit (CVP) AnalysisCost Volume Profit Analysis (CVP) is a way to understand the relationship between cost & sales and profit. It determines the effect of change in cost and sales on the profit of the company.. Management cannot extract this data from traditional methods.
- The net operating income figure is close to the flow of cash. It is useful for business, which faces problems in cash flowCash FlowCash Flow is the amount of cash or cash equivalent generated & consumed by a Company over a given period. It proves to be a prerequisite for analyzing the business’s strength, profitability, & scope for betterment. .
- Other method changes with a change in inventory level, period, etc. Sometimes sales and income move in the opposite direction, but this does not happen in the variable cost method.
- The variable cost income statement is not as per the standard of GAAP (Generally accepted accounting principle).
- The tax law of many countries uses other method statements like absorption costing.
- It does not assign a fixed cost to a unit of productionFixed Cost To A Unit Of ProductionFixed Cost refers to the cost or expense that is not affected by any decrease or increase in the number of units produced or sold over a short-term horizon. It is the type of cost which is not dependent on the business activity.. Hence, a production cost cannot be matched with revenueRevenueRevenue is the amount of money that a business can earn in its normal course of business by selling its goods and services. In the case of the federal government, it refers to the total amount of income generated from taxes, which remains unfiltered from any deductions..
Variable cost income statement help companies in various analyses like cost volume profit, to prepare flexible budgetsFlexible BudgetsA flexible budget refers to an estimate which varies with the change in production activity or volume. Such a budget is more realistic and flares the managerial efficiency and effectiveness as it sets a benchmark for the actual corporate performance. for better variance analysis and help in decision making to accept or reject special orders.
This has been a guide to Variable Costing Income Statement. Here we discuss steps to prepare the variable costing income statement along with practical examples and also its advantages and disadvantages. You may learn more about Accounting from the following articles –