Confidentiality Agreement

Updated on March 26, 2024
Article byAswathi Jayachandran
Edited byAswathi Jayachandran
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

What Is A Confidentiality Agreement?

A confidentiality agreement is an agreement to protect the owner’s private information from being exposed to the public. The purpose of this is to protect sensitive information, trade secrets, proprietary data, or other confidential material from being disclosed or used for unauthorized purposes.

Confidentiality Agreement

You are free to use this image on your website, templates, etc, Please provide us with an attribution linkHow to Provide Attribution?Article Link to be Hyperlinked
For eg:
Source: Confidentiality Agreement (wallstreetmojo.com)

The agreement carries information that is classified as confidential and acknowledges that either one or both parties in the contract consider certain information protected. In business settings, confidentiality agreements play a common role, particularly when sharing sensitive information, trade secrets, or proprietary data. Businesses often use them in various contexts, such as employment relationships, business negotiations, collaborations, and partnerships.

Key Takeaways

  • Confidentiality agreements are contracts between the involved parties to protect the private information involved in the contract.
  • There may be different types of confidentiality agreements, and their contents vary considerably. A few of the elements a basic confidentiality agreement possesses are definition, obligation, exception, control over information, etc.
  • The agreement clarifies who can be the recipients of the information, and ownership by anybody else is a violation. Clearly defined terms in such agreements help avoid confusion and provide protection from defamation through unwanted disclosure.

Confidentiality Agreement Explained

A confidentiality agreement refers to a legally binding contract between two or more parties that establishes a confidential relationship. They can also be between more than two parties. In other words, the contract safeguards confidential information. Moreover, businesses frequently utilize these agreements when engaging with potential purchasers, clients, or employees. Thus, to safeguard confidential information from unauthorized use or disclosure.

The agreement may specify the permitted uses of the confidential information. It serves as evidence in court if the recipient breaches the contract. Hence, it protects the owner from any potential harm or misuse of the information. By establishing these agreements, businesses can maintain control over their confidential information and protect their interests in various business relationships.

Businesses commonly use confidentiality agreements to protect proprietary information, including trade secrets, business strategies, and executive salaries. They can cover technical and commercial information, such as product designs and market research. Additionally, this agreement covers confidential situations such as legal action and mergers and acquisitions, guarding against market manipulation and insider trading details.

The agreement specifies permitted uses of the information and may restrict either party’s use. A confidentiality agreement can apply to any type of information shared between the involved parties, with no limits imposed.

In contrast, it is determining the appropriate duration for a confidentiality agreement. Crucially consider the nature of the information being protected, industry standards, the typical lifespan of the information’s sensitivity, and any legal or regulatory requirements. Furthermore, businesses can use confidentiality agreements in various contexts, such as employment relationships, business negotiations, collaborations, and partnerships.

Financial Modeling & Valuation Courses Bundle (25+ Hours Video Series)

–>> If you want to learn Financial Modeling & Valuation professionally , then do check this ​Financial Modeling & Valuation Course Bundle​ (25+ hours of video tutorials with step by step McDonald’s Financial Model). Unlock the art of financial modeling and valuation with a comprehensive course covering McDonald’s forecast methodologies, advanced valuation techniques, and financial statements.


Given below are a few of the elements a basic confidentiality agreement possesses, and they are as follows:

#1 – Definition

This describes what confidential information is. This essential portion establishes the boundaries of protected information by outlining what the disclosing party deems confidential. The disclosing party typically prefers more expansive definitions of what is confidential when negotiating an agreement.

#2 – Obligations

It is an essential component of a confidentiality agreement that describes the recipient’s obligations for handling confidential information. This part of the agreement outlines specific rules for revealing the information, mentioning who is permitted to access it and who is not, as well as specifying the legal uses of the information.

#3 – Exceptions

Usually, the agreement will have clauses acknowledging exceptions to the rule when the confidentiality obligations do not apply. When the information is revealed due to a court order or becomes widely known through means unrelated to the recipient, apply these exclusions.

#5 – Control Over Information

A basic confidentiality agreement specifies who owns the information to make clear the recipient’s rights—or lack thereof—to the information. It reiterates that the disclosing party retains complete ownership of the information and underscores that disclosure of confidential information does not confer ownership rights to the recipient.

#6 – Length Of The Contract

The term length of this agreement can vary. Some agreements have no specific endpoint and are intended to be enforceable indefinitely. Others define a specific timeframe based on a set period or tied to certain events such as product launches or the recipient’s employment with the disclosing company. Agreements must clearly state the conditions and circumstances under which either party involved can terminate them prematurely.


Let us look at some examples to understand the concept:

Example #1

Let’s take the hypothetical example of Dan, an employee. On his first day at the technology company, he, being an employee, was asked to sign a confidentiality agreement. In that agreement, he committed not to reveal any information about the product design, manufacturing criteria, or market research methods and results conducted by the company. In addition, the agreement restricted him from sharing salary details and classified various other information as confidential. By signing this agreement, Dan is obligated to keep such information confidential.

Example #2

U.S. Steel is signing confidentially agreements with potential purchasers after rejecting a buyout offer from rival Cleveland Cliffs and declaring it was open to offers.

The steelmaker, which is based in Pittsburgh and was a critical economic power during the early industrialization of the Calumet Region, announced that it had signed non-disclosure agreements “with numerous third parties.” It stated that respectable bidders had expressed interest in it.

The company that owns Gary Works and the Midwest Plant in Portage, U.S. Steel, effectively put itself on the market after stating it was considering strategic alternatives and rejecting Cleveland-Cliffs’ plan to consolidate the integrated steel industry further. U.S. Steel did not request any takeover offers.

In a shareholder letter, U.S. Steel stated that, while prioritizing safety, the team is making significant progress in transforming the company into a customer-centric, world-competitive Best for All steelmaker. “We are advancing up the talent curve, decreasing costs, and winning in important areas. This tried-and-true approach has rewarded U.S. Steel stockholders while offering clients profitable steel solutions that benefit both people and the environment.”


Below is the document of the confidentiality agreement:

This Confidentiality Agreement (the “Agreement”) is entered into as of [Date], by and between:

Disclosing Party: [Full Name or Company Name] [Address] (“Disclosing Party”)


Receiving Party: [Full Name or Company Name] [Address] (“Receiving Party”)

Collectively referred to as the “Parties.”

  1. Definition of Confidential Information:
  2. Obligations of Receiving Party:
  3. Purpose of Disclosure:
  4. Exclusions from Confidentiality:
  5. Return or Destruction of Information:
  6. Consequences of Breach:

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Parties hereto have executed this Confidentiality Agreement as of the Effective Date.

Disclosing Party: [Signature of Disclosing Party] [Printed Name of Disclosing Party] [Date]

Receiving Party: [Signature of Receiving Party] [Printed Name of Receiving Party] [Date]

Advantages And Disadvantages

There are many advantages and disadvantages to drafting an agreement for confidentiality. They are as follows:


  • It defines essential information that needs to be protected through confidentiality.
  • Clearly defined terms to avoid confusion and protection from defamation through unwanted disclosure.
  • It clarifies who can be the recipients of the information, and ownership by anybody else is a violation.
  • This protects trade secrets and other crucial business knowledge that could give other businesses an edge.


  • Despite having defined clauses, proving the actual breach can be difficult.
  • It prevents the disclosure of information; however, once damage occurs, the company may not be able to recover the complete costs.
  • In most cases, preventing the indirect commercial usage of information is challenging. Therefore, this can be attributed to the fact that the contract is binding only on the parties that entered into the contract.

Confidentiality Agreement vs NDA (Non Disclosure Agreement)

Although both concepts are similar, there are subtle differences between confidentiality agreements and NDAs, and they are as follows:

Key pointsConfidentiality agreementNDA
ConceptA confidentiality agreement is a formal legal agreement between involved parties where an agreement is reached to keep specified information confidential.Non-disclosure agreements, or confidentiality clauses, are agreements in which two or more parties agree to protect certain specified information from a third party.
UsageA contract is more likely to be categorized as a “confidentiality agreement” if there is two-way (or multilateral) communication of confidential or financially protected information.Moreover, a non-disclosure agreement is frequently utilized when information is shared unilaterally (in a one-way flow).
Information coveredHere, it is limited to confidential information, such as trade secrets, new business partnerships, etc.NDAs are not limited to confidential information; they can also include personal information.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. How to write a confidentiality agreement?

These agreements are tailored according to the demands of the parties involved. There shall be a clear definition of confidential information, breach, remedies, duration, effective dates, and the details of the parties involved. The jurisdiction of the law under which legal consequences will be dealt with will also be mentioned.

2. Are confidentiality agreements enforceable?

Yes, they are legally enforceable; however, the court decides the extent of their validity. The court decides if the extent of protection is valid, if there are any breaches, the remedy, etc. The cases could trigger criminal charges and harsh legal actions in certain situations.

3. Are confidentiality agreements taxable?

A confidentiality agreement itself is not typically subject to taxation because it is a legal contract that outlines obligations and responsibilities related to the protection of confidential information. However, the financial transactions or payments associated with a confidentiality agreement may have tax implications.

4. Can minors sign a confidentiality agreement?

In general, minors may lack the legal capacity to enter into contracts, including confidentiality agreements. Minors are often deemed to need more legal capacity to contract because they are considered to be legally incompetent to make binding agreements. In some cases, a minor can enter into a contract if certain conditions are met, such as obtaining the consent of a parent or legal guardian or if the contract is for necessities.

This article has been a guide to what is Confidentiality Agreement. Here, we explain its template, examples, comparison with NDA, elements, and advantages. You may also find some useful articles here –

Reader Interactions

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *