Risk Profile

Updated on April 4, 2024
Article byPrakhar Gajendrakar
Edited byPrakhar Gajendrakar
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

Risk Profile Definition

A risk profile is a portrayal of the risk appetite of an investor. It is done by assessing an individual’s capacity, interest, and willingness to take and manage risks. Preparing it helps financial advisors to assist clients in making effective investment decisions.

Usually, the risk appetite of an investor or an organization will be different from others because an entity’s risk characteristics depend on factors like the entity’s goals, risk perceptions, and tolerance level. Hence, the comparison of risk characteristics of investors and investment options to deduce better quality financial advisory services in a complex investment environment is vital.

Key Takeaways

  • A risk profile depicts the capacity and willingness of an investor or organization to take risks. The three main components are risk capacity, risk tolerance, and risk requirement.
  • It is a common technique used in financial markets where financial advisors use it to decide on investments and asset allocations associated with portfolios.
  • Firms or investors create and regularly update their profiles to make better investment decisions and regulate their portfolios.
  • The common types are conservative, moderately conservative, moderate, moderately aggressive, and aggressive.

Risk Profile Explained

A risk profile is vital for creating a customized portfolio reflecting an investor’s financial objectives. It results in developing efficient, rational, and transparent investment advice. It is more like a prerequisite for furnishing investment proposals or suggesting financial products to investors. The significant defining features contributing to the profile are risk toleranceRisk ToleranceRisk tolerance is the investors' potential and willingness to bear the uncertainties associated with their investment portfolios. It is influenced by multiple individual constraints like the investor's age, income, investment objective, responsibilities and financial condition.read more, risk capacity, and risk requirements.

  • Risk capacity: The amount of risk that an investor can take to reach their financial goals based on their financial condition.
  • Risk tolerance: The amount of variability in returns that an investor is willing to accept.
  • Risk requirement: The risk a firm or an investor should take to achieve their objectives. It is determined mainly based on the income, return requirement, and investment objectives.

Risk profiles in an investment scenario give analytical information. For example, it can describe why an investor always stays with a particular investment or mutual fundMutual FundA mutual fund is a professionally managed investment product in which a pool of money from a group of investors is invested across assets such as equities, bonds, etcread more without switching, the positive correlation between risk tolerance and investor’s well-being, and wealthy or novice investors’ attitudes towards risk. It also reflects investors’ expectations and behavior influenced by historical stock marketStock MarketStock Market works on the basic principle of matching supply and demand through an auction process where investors are willing to pay a certain amount for an asset, and they are willing to sell off something they have at a specific price.read more performance and demographic factors such as age, gender, etc. Financial advisors use various techniques to prepare risk profiles for investors. For example, they use psychometric test questionnaires or online calculators to get the result in quantitative terms.

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Types of Risk Profiles

The common types are conservative, moderately conservative, moderate, moderately aggressive, and aggressive.

Types of Risk Profiles

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Source: Risk Profile (wallstreetmojo.com)


The probability of investors falling in this category taking risks is very minimal. They look forward to only playing safe with their capital and are aware of the low returns. Amateur investors are more likely to fall into this profile as they are new; they avoid taking even the slightest form of risk and only invest in financial instrumentsFinancial InstrumentsFinancial instruments are certain contracts or documents that act as financial assets such as debentures and bonds, receivables, cash deposits, bank balances, swaps, cap, futures, shares, bills of exchange, forwards, FRA or forward rate agreement, etc. to one organization and as a liability to another organization and are solely taken into use for trading purposes.read more they possess knowledge of. Some financial instruments for conservative risk profiles are treasury billsTreasury BillsTreasury Bills (T-Bills) are investment vehicles that allow investors to lend money to the government.read more, corporate bondsCorporate BondsCorporate Bonds are fixed-income securities issued by companies that promise periodic fixed payments. These fixed payments are broken down into two parts: the coupon and the notional or face value.read more, sovereign bonds, etc.

Moderately Conservative

A moderately conservative investor emphasizes capital protection but takes a modest amount of risk and volatility to experience some profit. This investor prefers greater liquidity and is ready to accept lesser profits and minor losses.


These fall in a median point between conservative and aggressive investors. These investors generally have a balanced and diversified portfolio. They place equal priority on lowering risks and increasing rewards. They agree to take risks up to a certain level to attain bigger long-term gains and are ready to invest in diverse forms of financial instruments. In exchange for long-term gain, a moderate investor may suffer a short-term loss and a reduced level of liquidityLiquidityLiquidity is the ease of converting assets or securities into cash.read more.

Moderately Aggressive

Entities in this category accept significant risk hoping to maximize return as a medium- or long-term goal. They don’t give much priority to liquidity but returns in the future. Hence, they are ready to confront temporary losses.


These consist of investors with the highest risk-bearing capacity. Their objective is to attain exponential returns from the market in the shortest time possible, and for that, they are ready to confront price volatilities and endure losses. Accordingly, these types of investors generally devote all their time to financial marketsFinancial MarketsThe term "financial market" refers to the marketplace where activities such as the creation and trading of various financial assets such as bonds, stocks, commodities, currencies, and derivatives take place. It provides a platform for sellers and buyers to interact and trade at a price determined by market forces.read more, studying and accessing as much knowledge as.


Let’s consider Bank of America for depicting a risk profile example.

Bank of America is well-known for its preference for risk-averseRisk-averseThe term "risk-averse" refers to a person's unwillingness to take risks. Investors who prefer a low-return investment with known risks to a higher-return investment with unknown risks, for example, are risk-averse.read more tactics centering on “responsible growth .” Even the recent leadership shuffle had little effect on their risk-averse appetite. “We’re pretty comfortable with our strategy,” Alastair Borthwick, Bank of America’s chief financial officer, said at a conference in 2021.  He also stated that it is possible to accelerate growth by modifying the risk appetiteRisk AppetiteRisk appetite refers to the amount, rate, or percentage of risk that an individual or organization (as determined by the Board of Directors or management) is willing to accept in exchange for its plan, objectives, and innovation.read more, but management is disinterested in doing so.  Even if investors criticize the bank for being excessively conservative, the bank has never strayed from its risk-averse policy.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is a risk profile?

It estimates an investor’s capacity, interest, and readiness to deal with risk. Depicting an investor’s attitude toward risk helps portfolio managers or financial advisors decide on investments and prepare proposals and asset allocation associated with a portfolio.

What are the three components of a risk profile?

Three components are risk tolerance, risk capacity, and risk requirements. Tolerance details in the profile point to an investor’s desire or readiness to take risks. Risk capacity points to the financial status of the investor. Finally, risk requirement points to the financial goal or investor’s objective behind the investment.

How do I determine my risk profile?

It usually involves a quantitative examination of the many forms of risks that an organization, asset, project, or investor confronts. Financial advisors use various techniques to assess an investor’s risk tolerance level, capacity, and requirements. For example, they use psychometric test questionnaires or online calculators to get the result in quantitative terms.

This has been a Guide to what is Risk Profile in Investment. We explain the risk profile example and how it is prepared for investors using questionnaires. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

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