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## Annuity vs Perpetuity Differences

Annuity and Perpetuity both are implicated while we calculate the present or future value of a financial product and both Annuity vs Perpetuity are very significant parts of Time Value of Money calculation.

- Annuity simply means, when a series of the same amount of cash flow is received or paid over the life of asset on a monthly, quarterly, semi-annually or annually basis.
- Whereas Perpetuity means, when a series of the same amount of cash flow received or paid forever on a specified time frequency. Hence, we can say that perpetuity is similar to Annuity which will last till infinity.

These financial management concepts are used in our routine life, like purchasing a car on bank finance and repaying the loan in sequential EMIs’ or paying regular lease amount to our landlord. Here we will understand both Annuity vs Perpetuity the concept of time value of money in detail.

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### Annuity vs Perpetuity Infographics

Here are the top 5 differences between Annuity vs Perpetuity –

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### Annuity vs Perpetuity Key Differences

The Annuity and Perpetuity both seem similar at a first look, but there are few key differences annuity vs perpetuity that we need to recognize, viz –

- An annuity is a finite stream of cash flows received or paid at specified intervals, whereas Perpetuity is sort of Ordinary Annuity which will last forever, into perpetuity.
- An annuity can further be defined in two types i.e. Ordinary Annuity and Annuity Due. An Ordinary Annuity means, payments are required to be made at the end of each period, eg. Plain Vanilla Bonds make their coupon payments at the end of each period till the life of the Bond. Whereas in Annuity Due, payments are required to be paid at the beginning of the period eg. Rent paid in advance for every month until the let out period.
- Due to its stringent time period, Perpetuity is not utilized for many financial assets, as compared to Annuity.
- There are no further types of Perpetuity and Consols i.e. Bonds issued by UK Government which will make the coupon payments till the infinity or stocks paying a constant dividend are the best examples of Perpetuity.
- As an Annuity has a specified time period, it uses the compound interest rate to calculate the future value of a stream of cash flow. It means, while deriving the value of an Annuity, it’s required to compound cash flow and interest rate which is earned every year, till the life of Annuity. Whereas Perpetuity has an infinite time period, it uses simple interest rate or stated interest rate only. The Perpetuity owner will receive a constant amount of cash flow forever.
- One can calculate the present value of Annuity by discounting annuity cash flows and future value of Annuity by compounding annuity cash flows at the specified interest rate. While the future value of Perpetuity is indeterminable due to its perpetual nature of cash flow, its present value can be calculated and which is equal to sum of the discounted value of each periodic cash flow.
- The formula for calculating the present value of Ordinary Annuity, Annuity Due and Perpetuity are as below –
**Present Value of Ordinary Annuity = A * [{1 – (1 + r)**^{-n}} / r ]**Present Value of Annuity Due = A * [{1 – (1 + r)**^{-n}} / r ] * (1 + r)**Present Value of Perpetuity = A / r**- Where,
**A**= Annuity Amount,**r**= Interest Rate per Period and**n**= Number of Payment Periods

### Annuity vs Perpetuity Head to Head Differences

Followings are the important differences between Annuity and Perpetuity –

Sr No |
Comparision between Annuity vs Perpetuity |
Annuity |
Perpetuity |

1 | Duration | Duration of Annuity is certain, till the life of financial asset | Duration of perpetuity is infinite / forever |

2 | Types | Ordinary Annuity and Annuity Due are the two types of Annuity | No such type of Perpetuity |

3 | Interest | It uses compound interest to calculate the present or future value of Annuity | It uses simple interest to calculate present value of Perpetuity |

4 | Example | Coupon, Rent, EMI | Consols i.e. bonds issued by UK Government, Constant Dividend |

5 | Usability | Annuity is very frequently used in Financial Markets | Perpetuity is not frequently used in Financial Markets |

### Annuity vs Perpetuity – Conclusion

We can conclude that, the Perpetuity is perpetual Annuity. The only difference between Annuity and Perpetuity is their time period. At a one hand, Annuity has finite set of sequential cash flows and at the other hand, Perpetuity don’t have any specified existence and it’s payment frequency extends indefinitely. While calculating the present value or future value of Annuity, you must have to consider cash flow, cash flow frequencies, interest rate and the time at which the first payment is made i.e. at the beginning of period or at the end of the period. But calculation of perpetuity is quite simple and while calculating the present value of the perpetuity, you only need to consider the cash flow and the stated interest rate.

### Recommended Articles

This has a been a guide to the top differences between Perpetuity vs Annuity. Here we also discuss the Perpetuity vs Annuity differences with examples, infographics, and comparison table. You may also have a look at the following articles for gaining further knowledge –

- Differences Between Coupon vs Yield
- Differences Between Annuity vs Pension
- Differences Between Present Value and Future Value
- Calculate the Simple Interest Formula
- Differences Between Simple Interest and Compound Interest
- Annuity vs Lump Sum Differences
- Top Best Differences Dividends and Growth
- PMT Function Formula
- Accounting vs Financial Management
- Perpetuity Formula
- FV function in Excel
- Future Value Formula
- Net Present Value Formula

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