Big Bath

Updated on January 2, 2024
Article byWallstreetmojo Team
Edited byAshish Kumar Srivastav
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

What is a Big Bath?

Big Bath is a kind of manipulative accounting in the books of accounts. The company manipulates the income in a bad year by degrading the income further, thereby reporting even more loss than what it is so that the upcoming period or year looks better and makes it possible for future results to look attractive.

Key Takeaways

  • “Big Bath” is a type of deceptive accounting practice in which a company manipulates its financial records to make the following quarter or year appear better by intentionally degrading the income and reporting even greater losses than what occurred. 
  • It is common for accountants to manipulate the books by understating income or overstating losses in the current year to make the year appear worse, boost future earnings, and present a better picture subsequently.
  • Using accounting tricks to intentionally make the current year appear worse than it is to inflate future earning potential is considered unethical.


Big Bath

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How Does it Work?

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Big Bath Examples

Assumptions of Big Bath

Criticism of Big Bath

  • It generally reduces the optimization level of the resources available in the market.
  • Too much adherence to this practice may impact the business’s reputation, as investors tend to become more suspicious of the business unit.
  • The business using earning manipulation may tend to show an enhanced profit every following year, and if this doesn’t show the expected result, investors may back out from the firm.
  • When the profit is manipulated to a higher degree, it may end up the business losing its reliability and relevance due to too much financial dressing of its data.
  • It is tough to apply this technique because companies have to work under the guidelines of GAAP, and any significant change which is not under GAAP guidelines may lead the firm to practice fraudulent activity.


Some of the advantages are as follows:

  • A big bath is a source to earn more bonuses and profit in the successive year.
  • They may be used to attract investors and creditors based on the story of an attractive profit-earning capacity shortly.
  • It is a proactive strategy to settle for all losses in one go.
  • Big Bath is a technique to clean the balance sheet, and firms typically wait for a loss-making year to do this.


A big bath though a manipulative accounting technique is legal if applied to a limited magnitude. Though it attracts a lot of criticism, the management with a fixed expectation in mind may use it. On the other hand, the different expectations may attract the practice of this strategy, and the business has to keep in mind to manipulate their numbers only to a certain extent.

Frequently Asked Questions

How to identify big bath practices?

1. Look for significant write-downs, unusual charges, or other one-time events in a company’s financial statements that could indicate a big bath approach.
2. Compare the company’s financial performance with industry peers to identify any unusually large or inconsistent changes in financial metrics that may indicate the use of big bath practices.

What distinguishes income smoothing from a big bath? 

While the “big baths” phenomenon is more of a once-off activity because it is predicated on the unique or nonrecurring nature of a transaction, income smoothing is a technique that is relatively common and can span over several years.

What is the alternative to a big bath?

Two alternatives to big bath practices are gradual adjustments and transparent disclosures. Gradual adjustments involve spreading the impact of negative events over multiple periods, while transparent disclosures involve providing clear and comprehensive information about the reasons for changes in financial performance without resorting to one-time charges or write-downs.

Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to what Big Bath is and its definition. Here we discuss how Big Bath works with examples, assumptions, and criticisms. You may learn more about financing from the following articles –

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