Adjusted Net Income

Article byKhalid Ahmed
Edited byAlfina
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

What Is Adjusted Net Income?

Adjusted Net Income (ANI) is a non-GAAP financial metric providing a mostly accurate net profitability view after adjusting for non-cash, non-recurring, and extraordinary items. It reveals a firm’s actual profits, facilitates more informed decision-making for investors, analysts, and creditors, and aids business valuation during mergers and acquisitions. 

Adjusted Net Income

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For eg:
Source: Adjusted Net Income (wallstreetmojo.com)

Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has specific provisions for its calculation and definitions related to taxes. Management uses it to assess ongoing operations through internal analysis. It helps investors and analysts evaluate potential investments. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) net income and ANI are presented side by side in financial statements, facilitating in-depth financial performance analysis.

Key Takeaways

  • Adjusted Net Income (ANI) is an unofficial financial measure offering a more precise perspective on a company’s net profit by accounting for non-cash, irregular, and exceptional items. 
  • It assists stakeholders in making informed decisions and evaluating companies during mergers or acquisitions.
  • It can be calculated using the formula: ANI = Net Income – Adjustments. 
  • It adjusts for non-recurring and non-cash items to provide a non-GAAP measure of a firm’s net profitability. At the same time, Net Income refers to the profit obtained after accounting for taxes and expenses applicable to businesses and individuals.

Adjusted Net Income Explained

Adjusted net income (ANI) is defined as the surplus of gross income, including modifications and minus deductions permitted for a taxable corporation accounting for the specific deductions alterations. Gross income comprises income operationally related business and excludes contributions given by private operating organizations, grants, and gifts. Moreover, no exclusion credits or deductions must be made without warranted deduction or income modifications to figure out ANI. Additionally, it depicts a more accurate view of a business’s profitability after excluding one-time to irregular expenses and revenues.

It begins its working with the company’s net income from its income statement. Then, one normalizes it after adding back non-recurring and non-cash items like amortization of intangible assets or depreciation and compensation expenses, which are stock-based. After that, non-recurring expenses like lawsuit settlements or restructuring costs are removed. As a result, it removes distortions due to accounting variations and one-time occurrences. Therefore, it gives a resulting figure providing a vivid comprehension of a firm’s earnings.

ANI provides a lucid view of a company’s financial health and sustainable earnings. Investors, creditors, and analysts use it to ascertain a business’s creditworthiness, investment potential, and valuation. The firm’s management too uses it to make strategic decisions and set targets by filtering out non-operational or exceptional activities that may have distorted financial assessment. It has been a vital tool in tax calculation helping in understanding a company’s value and earnings. 

Investors and analysts utilize it to conduct accurate comparisons of businesses inside an industry. It also helps them in accurately forecasting future earnings. It affects and influences financial reporting, valuation methodologies, and investment decisions in the financial world. ANI thus creates a more informed, transparent market, allowing for its meaningful evaluation of financial efficiency. 

How To Calculate?

Let us take a look at the adjusted net income formula and calculation: 

  1. Start with Net Income: Consult the income statement of the firm to determine its net income.
  2. Identify Adjustments: Examine financial accounts and disclosures carefully to identify things that are usually not included in ANI, such as restructuring costs, gains or losses from asset sales, legal settlements, impairment charges, amortization of intangible assets, and stock-based compensation expenses.
  3. Adjust for Specific Modifications: Eliminate sporadic or one-time income and costs from the net income computation.
  4. Apply Adjustments: Make the appropriate adjustments by deducting them from the reported net income. One may make these changes line by line or all at once using the formula below.

ANI = Net Income – Adjustments

Or 

Adjusted Net Income (ANI) = Reported Net Income + Non-recurring Items + Non-cash Items – Non-operating Expenses 

5. Consider Variations: ANI computations may vary depending on business procedures and industry standards. For precise modifications made, consult the company’s disclosures or analyst reports as well.

Examples

Let us use a few examples to understand the topic.

Example #1

Let us use a few examples to understand the topic.

  1. In 2023, Sophia Campbell, an Austin, Texas, school teacher, earned a gross total of $65,000.
  2. She paid $4,000 in interest on her college loans and contributed $5,000 to her standard IRA.
    Let us use the following method to get her adjusted net income (ANI) for US tax purposes:
    Adjusted Net Income (ANI) = Gross Income – Deductions (adjustments) ——- (1)
    Here,
    Gross Income = $65000 ———— (2)
    Loans = $4000 ———— (3)
    Standard IRA = $5000 ———— (4)
    Deductions = loans + standard IRA ———— (5)
    Following is the calculation:
    ANI= Gross Income – Deductions = Gross Income – (loans + standard IRA) —– from (1) & (5)
    =$65,000 – ($5,000 + $4,000) ———— from (2), (3) & (4)
    Therefore, ANI = $56,000.
    Hence, Sophia will make $56,000 in adjusted net income in 2023.

Example #2

This news report on Nu Holdings (NYSE: NU) revealed impressive financial results for the third quarter, as the revenue of the company increased to $2.14 billion from $2.05 billion. As a result, its sales surpassed the projected amount by $0.09 billion. Comparing Q3 2022 to Q2 and Q3, adjusted net income increased significantly as well. Q3 of 2022 saw an increase in the company’s buying volume compared to Q2 and Q3. During the quarter, Nu Holdings added clients, bringing its total customer base to 89.1 million.

The average monthly income per active client increased, but the average monthly cost of serving each active user was constant. Additionally, deposits rose from Q2 to Q3. Despite the encouraging financial performance, the company’s shares fell 2.6% in Tuesday’s after-hours trade.

Adjusted Net Income vs Net Income

Net income is a more straightforward indicator of take-home pay for employees and a profit indicator for businesses; on the other hand, adjusted net income is a more thorough and precise indicator of a company’s continuing success. Let us look at how they differ from each other using the table below:

Adjusted Net IncomeNet Income
Adjusts for non-recurring & non-cash items being a non-GAAP measure of the firm’s net profitability. The profit is obtained after accounting for taxes and expenses applicable to businesses and individuals.
Starting with net income and sums back non-recurring and non-cashnoncash items.Taxes are subtracted from gross income.
Presents an accurate picture of the financial performance and ongoing profitability of a company. Denotes that money that goes into one’s pocket after deducting everything from gross income.
Acquired companies and non-profit entities use it more.Equally applicable to individuals and businesses.
Different companies calculate it differently as it tends to be a non-GAAP measure.Refers to standardized accounting procedures applied to net income, which applies to different businesses consistently.
Analysts, creditors and investors use it.Potential acqui-analysts and management use it.
Concerned about the general financial performance of a company.The purpose is to give a more accurate view of current operations.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. Where do I find my adjusted net income?

Look for the net income reported in line with GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) on the income statement or tax return to determine ANI. A non-GAAP indicator of a business’s net profitability, ANI eliminates the impact of non-cash and non-recurring expenses.

2. Does adjusted net income include pension contributions?

Not usually; however, a few could show up. Additionally, in certain situations, ANI is a complete measure of a company’s operational performance, and pension contributions are included in it.

3. How to reduce adjusted net income?

Reduce ANI by identifying tax breaks and methods, such as:
1. Investment and tax planning deductions in collaboration with a qualified accountant.
2. Increase the number of permitted deductions
3. Make contributions to retirement funds
4. Applying for tax credits

4. What is my adjusted net income calculator?

By normalizing reported net income and adding back non-cash and non-recurring items, an ANI calculator may assist in estimating adjusted net income. Numerous online calculators are accessible, such as the Income Tax Calculator by Calculator.net and the Salary Paycheck Calculator by ADP.

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