EBITDA Formula (Table of Contents)
- What is EBITDA Formula?
- Example of EBITDA Formula
- EBITDA Calculator
- EBITDA Formula in Excel (with excel template)
What is EBITDA Formula?
EBITDA (Earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization) formula, as the name indicates, is basically the calculation of the company’s profitability which can be derived by adding back interest expense, taxes, depreciation & amortization expense to net income. EBITDA is not represented in the income statement as a line item, rather EBITDA calculation has to be done by using the other already available items reported in every income statement.
Mathematically, it can be calculated using two methods
Method 1 – Starts with Net Income
- EBITDA Formula = Net Income + Interest Expense + Taxes + Depreciation & Amortization Expense
Method 2 – Starts with EBIT
- EBITDA Formula + EBIT + Depreciation & Amortization Expense
- or EBITDA = EBT + Interest Expense + Depreciation & Amortization Expense
Although the above formula is the predominantly used in the calculation of EBITDA and will be discussed in detail in this article, there is another way for EBITDA calculation. In the second method, the calculation of EBITDA can be done by deducting all expenses from net sales other than interest expense, taxes, and depreciation expense. But this method is not a popular one and hence it is not elaborated in this article.
Example of EBITDA Formula
Let us consider an example of EBITDA calculation for a company called XYZ Limited. XYZ Limited is in the business of manufacturing customized roller skates for both professional and amateur skaters. At the end of the financial year, XYZ Limited has earned $150,000 in total net sales along with the following expenses.
- Salaries: (+) $50,000
- Rent: (+) $20,000
- Cost of Goods Sold: $70,000
- Net sales: (+) $150,000
- Cost of Goods Sold: (-) $70,000
- Interest expense: (-) $10,000
- Depreciation expense: (-) $25,000
- Taxes: (-) $4,000
- Net income: $41,000
XYZ Limited’s net income at the end of the financial year stood at $41,000.
Now, the calculation of EBITDA can be done as,
- EBITDA = Net income + Interest expense + Depreciation expense
- = $41,000 + $10,000 + $25,000
- = $76,000
Explanation of the EBITDA Formula
EBITDA Equation can be determined by the following two simple steps:
The formula for EBITDA, in fact, is very simple since the entire set of information required for its calculation is already contained in the income statement. The first step in the calculation of EBITDA from the income statement is to arrive at the operating profit or Earnings before Interest and Tax (EBIT). The data can be found in the income statement after the depreciation & amortization expenses and selling, general & administrative (SG&A) expenses.
Now that EBIT has taken out the depreciation and amortization expense in the income statement, it is required to add back the expense to assess the cash flow of the company. When these non-cash expenses are added to EBIT, it is then recognized as the EBITDA which is the real amount of cash generated by the company operation. Various investors and users of financial statements use EBITDA equation because they believe that non-cash expenses are not actual cash outflow and as such should be considered during assessment of the real cash flow of the company. Consequently, it is considered that the EBITDA formula is the financial metric which reveals the true cash flow position of the company.
Relevance and Uses of EBITDA formula
- EBITDA formula is basically a profitability metric that helps to assess how a company is performing which is calculated by measuring profit before payment of interest to lenders or creditors, taxes to the government and other non-cash expenses like depreciation and amortization. This is not a financial ratio, rather a profitability calculation which is measured in terms of dollars and not in percentages like most other financial terms.
- However, there remains a limitation of the EBITDA equation that it is particularly useful when comparing similar companies in the same industry. Since the EBITDA equation only measures profit in terms of dollar amount, investors and other financial users usually find it difficult to use this metric to compare differently sized (small & medium enterprise, mid-corporate and large corporate) companies across the industry.
You can use the following EBITDA Calculator
|EBITDA Formula =||Net Income + Interest Expense + Taxes + Depreciation & Amortization Expense|
|0 + 0 + 0 + 0 =||0|
EBITDA Formula in Excel (with excel template)
Now let us take the real-life EBITDA example of Apple Inc.’s published financial statement for the last three accounting periods.
Based on publicly available financial information the EBITDA (in dollar terms) of Apple Inc. can be calculated for the accounting years 2016 to 2018.
Here we have used the EBITDA equation i.e EBITDA = Net income + Interest expense + Taxes + Depreciation & Amortization expense
From the below table, we can be seen that the EBITDA level of Apple Inc. in dollar terms has been growing during the period which is a positive sign for any company.
You can download this EBITDA Formula Excel template here – EBITDA Formula Excel Template
This has been a guide to EBITDA formula. Here we discuss its uses, calculation and application of EBITDA equation along with practical examples. Here we also provide you with EBITDA Calculator with downloadable excel template –