What are Final Accounts?
Final Accounts is the ultimate stage of accounting process where the different ledgers maintained in the Trial Balance (Books of Accounts) of the business organization are presented in the specified way to provide the profitability and financial position of the entity for a specified period to the stakeholders and other interested parties i.e., Trading Account, Statement of Profit & Loss, Balance Sheet.
Initially, the transactions are recorded in the Journal of the company, which is then reflected in the individual ledgers maintained for the relative transaction type & party. The closing balance of this ledger is maintained in the Trial Balance, which shows equal debit and credit side for the period. Then for providing the status & performance of the business organization for the specified period (i.e., a year, half-year, quarter, etc.), Final accounts are prepared which included Trading Account for calculation of Gross profit (now generally inclusive with the statement of profit & loss), Statement of Profit & Loss for net profit earned during the period and Balance Sheet which provide the Assets & Liabilities of the entity at the period end.
- The final account is legally required for the entities. The financial accounting and preparation Financial statements are obligatory for the entities as well as getting those accounts audited.
- These accounts are prepared for presenting and providing the financial performance and status of the entity to the stakeholders, users, investors, promoters, etc.
- The presentation of comparable figures of the current period from the previous period increases the utility of the statements of accounts.
- It presents the accurate & fair view of the organization’s financial performance by providing accurate & full information regarding the business with proper notes and disclosures of the real facts.
Objectives of Final Accounts
- They are prepared for the calculation of Gross profit & net profit earned by the organization for the relevant period by presenting the Statement of Profit & Loss.
- The Balance sheet is prepared for providing the correct financial position of the company as on the date.
- These accounts use the bifurcation of direct expenses to obtain the gross profit & loss and bifurcation in indirect expenses to ascertain the Net profit & loss for the organization.
- These accounts through the Balance sheet bifurcate the assets & liabilities as per the holding & usage periods of the same.
Example of Final Accounts
ABC Inc. shows the following balances in its ledger:
Prepare the final accounts based on the given data.
- As the size and the business of the organization grows, it becomes necessary for the management of the organization to take proper steps to maintain the growth of the organization as well as creating the appropriate internal control in the organization for the prevention of fraud & errors. It helps the management to find the possible weak areas of the entity and also identifying the major areas which need special attention.
- Final Accounts is the source for the external components like shareholders and investors to study the status of the entity and the entity’s business. Based on the entity, the investors decide whether to invest their funds in the same business industry or not.
- It provides the authenticated information to the public, who is the judge for the company based on who the company’s future lies. Ultimately the company aims to satisfy its consumers. Final Accounts provide just enough data and information to the users to assess the worth of the entity.
- The preparation of Final Accounts increases the accuracy as well as the effectiveness of the accounts.
- During the preparation, any innocent mistakes or fraud can be discovered and could be rectified quickly.
- This account shows the status of the entity and business for the period, and the audit of the same create a check on the entity and its processes, which reduces the risk of the fraud and misstatement.
- Provide the information for the valuation of the business and evaluation of the real worth of the business.
- Final accounts are mainly prepared based on historical & monetary transactions. This only provides the presentation and status of the money transaction to the users and public but does not provide the information relating to the work environment of the entity, customer satisfaction for the services & goods supplied by the company.
- It cannot be assured that the Financials are entirely free from any misstatements as there are inherent limitations in the audit of the financial, which cannot ensure the 100% guarantee that the financials are free to form any inaccuracies.
- There are substantial chances that the financials are influenced due to the personal judgment of the accountant or the judgment from the management personnel.
The final accounting is the final step of the accounting process. Final accounting includes the Statement of Profit & Loss and Balance Sheet, which provide the presentation of the financial status and position of the entity. They are prepared for the specified period and are legally obligated. The financial statement is the basis for the shareholders and investors to decide on the investment of their funds in the securities of the entity.
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This article has been a guide to what is final accounts, its definition, and meaning. Here we discuss features, objectives, and practical examples of final accounts along with advantages and disadvantages. You may learn more about Accounting from the following articles –