Variance Analysis Formula

Variance analysis formula helps in calculating and examining of the difference between the standards numbers expected by the business to achieve and the actual numbers achieved by them and it is calculated by deducting the actual number achieved by the standards numbers expected by the business to achieve

What is the Variance Analysis Formula?

Variance analysis refers to the investigation, due to deviations, in the financial performance from the standards set by the company in the budget. It helps the management of the company to keep an eye and a control check on its operational performance.

Variance Analysis can apply to many variables, but they are generally and broadly categorize into the following different types:

  • Material Variance
  • Variable Overhead Variance
  • Labor Variance
  • Sales Variance
  • Fixed Overhead Variance

Below are some of the Variance Analysis formulae that one can apply:

  • Material Cost Variance Formula = Standard Cost – Actual Cost = (SQ * SP) – (AQ * AP)
  • Labor Variance Formula= Standard Wages – Actual Wages = (SH * SP) – (AH * AP)
  • Variable Overhead Variance Formula = Standard Variable Overhead – Actual Variable Overhead = (SR – AR) * AO.
  • Fixed Overhead Variance Formula = (AO * SR) – Actual Fixed Overhead.
  • Sales Variance Formula = (BQ * BP) – (AQ * AP)

Variance Analysis Formula

NOTES:

Where,

  • SQ = Standard Quantity for actual output,
  • SP = Standard Price
  • AQ = Actual Quantity
  • AP = Actual Price
  • SH = Standard Hours
  • AH = Actual Hours
  • SR = Standard Rate
  • AR = Actual Rate
  • AO = Actual Output
  • BQ = Budgeted Quantity
  • BP = Budgeted Price

Explanation of the Variance Analysis Formula

There are various aspects of variance analysis formula, as mentioned above. The difference between the direct material’s standard cost and direct material’s actual cost that the firm uses for its production can be termed as Material Variance (Cost Variance). The first term in every formula is associated with a standard that is set and the second term in every formula state in actual, and the difference gives us whether that Variance is favorable or adverse. When the result is positive, that is favorable versus the result that comes in negative is adverse.

Examples of Variance Analysis Formula (with Excel Template)

Let’s see some simple to advanced examples of Variance Analysis Formula to understand it better.

You can download this Variance Analysis Formula Excel Template here – Variance Analysis Formula Excel Template

Example # 1

Below is the summary extracted from ABC Ltd., which is engaged in manufacturing steel. You are required to do material and labor variance analysis.

Below is given data for the calculation of variance analysis.

Variance Analysis Formula Eg1

Calculation of Standard Quantity for AO

Variance Analysis Formula Eg1.1

Calculation of Standard Hours for AO

Variance Analysis Formula Eg1.2

Calculation of Material Cost Variance

Variance Analysis Formula Eg1.3

Material Cost Variance Formula = Standard Cost – Actual Cost

= (SQ * SP) – (AQ * AP)

= (320*11) – (300*9)

Material Cost Variance will be –

Variance Analysis Formula Eg1.4

=2080 (Favorable)

Calculation of Labor Variance

Variance Analysis Formula Eg1.5

Labor Variance formula  = Standard wages – Actual Wages

= (SH * SP) – (AH * AP)

= (240*9) – (350*8)

Labor Variance will be –

Variance Analysis Formula Eg1.6

=640 (Adverse)

NOTE: Whenever there is a negative figure in variance analysis, then it should be written as Adverse and not negative.

Example # 2

Prashant industries, a well-renowned company in the manufacturing of copper cables, is worried about its actual performance due to an increment of overhead expenses and has provided you the below data and asked you to conduct overhead analysis for both fixed and variable.

Below is given data for the calculation of variance analysis.

Variance Analysis Formula Eg2

Calculation of Variable Overhead Variance

Variance Analysis Formula Eg2.1

Variable Overhead Variance = Standard Variable Overhead – Actual Variable Overhead                                                                                                          =  (SR – AR) * AO

= (25 – 27) * 80

Variable Overhead Variance will be –

Variance Analysis Formula Eg2.2

=160 (Adverse)

Calculation of Fixed Overhead Variance

Variance Analysis Formula Eg2.3

Fixed Overhead Variance  =  (AO * SR) – Actual Fixed Overhead

=(80 * 25) – 2500

Fixed Overhead Variance will be –

Variance Analysis Formula Eg2.4

=500 (Adverse)

Example # 3

Silver ltd has been trying to analyze its issue related to performance as it is not able to analyze why it shortfall with meeting its street estimate profits, and upon initial investigation, it found out that its operating profit is fluctuating year on year. Hence, the driver for the same was gross profit, and hence it decided to review its production-related issues, if any. You are required to conduct all the variance analysis and advise the management of Silver ltd where the issue lies.

Variance Analysis Formula Eg3

Below is given data for the calculation of variance analysis.

Calculation of Standard Quantity for AO

Variance Analysis Formula Eg3.1

Calculation of Standard Hours for AO

Variance Analysis Formula Eg3.2

Calculation of Material Cost Variance

Variance Analysis Formula Eg3.3

Material Cost Variance Formula =Standard Cost – Actual Cost

=(SQ * SP) – (AQ * AP)

=(1080*3.55) – (2700*4)

Material Cost Variance will be –

Variance Analysis Formula Eg3.4

=6966 (Adverse)

Calculation of Labor Variance Formula

Example 3.5

Labor Variance formula  = Standard wages – Actual Wages

= (SH * SP) – (AH * AP)

=(12960*2) – (11000*1.5)

Labor Variance will be –

Example 3.6

9420 (Favorable)

Calculation of Variable Overhead Variance

Example 3.7

Variable Overhead Variance = Standard Variable Overhead – Actual Variable Overhead                                                                                                           = (SR – AR) * AO

=(2 – 1.5) * 2700

Variable Overhead Variance will be –

Example 3.8

=1350 (Favorable)

Calculation of Fixed Overhead Variance

Example 3.9

Fixed Overhead Variance = (AO * SR) – Actual Fixed Overhead

=(2700 * 2) – 7000

Fixed Overhead Variance will be –

Example 3.10

=1600 (Adverse)

Calculation of Sales Variance

Example 3.11

Sales Variance = (BQ * BP) – (AQ * AP)

=(2500*5.6) – (2700*5.5)

Sales Variance will be –

Example 3.12

=850 (Adverse)

Relevance and Uses

It can be said that variance analysis involves the isolation of different causes for variation in budgeted when compared with actual outcomes. Variance analysis aids in management by exception concept by depicting all the deviations from standards that are affecting the firm’s financial performance. If variance analysis is not performed, then such exceptions may cause a delay in action from the management, which was very much necessary in that particular situation. The performance of each and every responsibility which is assigned to different departments is measured and will be then evaluated against standards with respect to areas that are within its direct control.

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