Difference Between Book Value and Market Value
Book value is the net assets value of the company and is calculated as the sum of total assets minus the amount of intangible assets and is always equal to the carrying value of assets on the balance sheet while market value as the name suggests that the value of the assets that we will receive if we plan to sell it today.
Book value and Market value are key techniques used by investors to value asset classes (stocks or bonds). Book value is the value of the company according to its balance sheet. Market value is the value of a stock or a bond, based on the traded prices in the financial markets. Though the market value can be calculated at any point in time, an investor gets to know the book value when a company files it’s earning on a quarterly basis.
- The book value of an assetBook Value Of An AssetBook Value of Assets is the asset's value in the books of records of a company or an institution at any given instance. Assets Book Value Formula = Total Value of an Asset – Depreciation – Other Expenses Directly Related to it is strictly based on the balance sheet or “Books” of the company. Book value is calculated by taking the difference between assets and liabilities on the balance sheet. It is also known as Shareholders’ equity EquityShareholder’s equity is the residual interest of the shareholders in the company and is calculated as the difference between Assets and Liabilities. The Shareholders' Equity Statement on the balance sheet details the change in the value of shareholder's equity from the beginning to the end of an accounting period. or net worthNet WorthThe company's net worth can be calculated using two methods: the first is to subtract total liabilities from total assets, and the second is to add the company's share capital (both equity and preference) as well as reserves and surplus. and can be derived from the accounting equationThe Accounting EquationAccounting Equation is the primary accounting principle stating that a business's total assets are equivalent to the sum of its liabilities & owner’s capital. This is also known as the Balance Sheet Equation & it forms the basis of the double-entry accounting system. assets= liabilities+ shareholder’s equity.
- The market value of an asset is assigned by the investors on that particular date, i.e., based on the current price of that asset traded in the financial marketsFinancial MarketsThe term "financial market" refers to the marketplace where activities such as the creation and trading of various financial assets such as bonds, stocks, commodities, currencies, and derivatives take place. It provides a platform for sellers and buyers to interact and trade at a price determined by market forces.. It is calculated by multiplying the market price per share of the company with the number of outstanding shares. It can vary, and at any point in time, it can be more or less than book value.
Book Value vs. Market Value Infographics
- Book value is the value of an asset reported in the balance sheet of the firm. Market Value is the current valuation of the firm or assets (the ongoing price of the share) in the market on which it can be bought or sold.
- Book value gives us the actual worth of the assets owned by the company, whereas Market value is the projected value of the firms or the assets worth in the market.
- Book value is equal to the value of the firm’s equity, while market value indicates the current market value of any firm or any asset.
- An investor can calculate the book value of an asset when the company reports its earnings on a quarterly basis, whereas market value changes every single moment.
- Book value shows the actual cost or acquisition cost of the asset, whereas the other indicates the current market trends.
- Book value is the accounting value of an asset and is less relevant at times when a company is actually planning to sell that asset in the market; in comparison, the market value reflects the more accurate valuation of an asset during the buying and selling of that asset.
- The book value of an asset is accounted for in the balance sheet based on historical cost, amortized cost, or fair value. Market value reflects the fair value or market value of an asset.
|Basis of Comparison||Book Value||Market Value|
|Meaning||It is the real worth of the assets of the company. It is the actual worth of the asset of the company.||Market value is defined as the maximum price at which an asset or security can be bought or sold in the market.|
|Reflects||The firm’s equity.||The current market priceMarket PriceMarket price refers to the current price prevailing in the market at which goods, services, or assets are purchased or sold. The price point at which the supply of a commodity matches its demand in the market becomes its market price..|
|Basis of Calculation||Book value is calculated by taking the difference between assets and liabilities in the balance sheet.||The market value of a company is calculated by multiplying the market price per share of the company with the number of outstanding sharesOutstanding SharesOutstanding shares are the stocks available with the company's shareholders at a given point of time after excluding the shares that the entity had repurchased. It is shown as a part of the owner's equity in the liability side of the company's balance sheet..|
|Frequency of Fluctuations||Happens at periodical intervals, i.e., infrequent;||Very frequent. Market value fluctuates every now and then.|
|Measurement Bases||The book value of an asset is accounted for in the balance sheet based on historical cost, amortized cost, or fair value.||Market value reflects the fair value or market value of an asset.|
Market Value and Book Value of equityBook Value Of EquityThe book value of equity reflects the fund that belongs to the equity shareholders and is available for distribution to the shareholders. It is computed as the net amount remaining after deducting all of the company's liabilities from its total assets. are widely used by investors to value an asset class. Comparing both for a company indicates whether the company is undervalued or overvalued. If the market value is less than the book value, it implies the stock is trading at a discount and vice versa.
Book value is the accounting value of an asset and often does not reflect the true market value at which an asset can be bought or sold. Market value provides more accurate current value as it reflects the demand and supply of an asset. Several multiple valuation techniques like (PE ratioPE RatioThe price to earnings (PE) ratio measures the relative value of the corporate stocks, i.e., whether it is undervalued or overvalued. It is calculated as the proportion of the current price per share to the earnings per share. , PB ratioPB RatioPrice to Book Value Ratio or P/B Ratio helps to identify stock opportunities in Financial companies, especially banks, and is used with other valuation tools like PE Ratio, PCF, EV/EBITDA. Price to Book Value Ratio = Price Per Share / Book Value Per Share , EV to EBITDA RatioEV To EBITDA RatioEV to EBITDA is the ratio between enterprise value and earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization that helps the investor in the valuation of the company at a very subtle level by allowing the investor to compare a specific company to the peer company in the industry as a whole, or other comparative industries.) use market value, or the book value as one of the variables.
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This article has been a guide to Book Value vs. Market Value of Equity. Here we discuss the top differences between book value and market value of equity with infographics and comparison table. You may also have a look at the following articles for gaining further knowledge in Accounting –