Shareholders Equity

What is Shareholders Equity?

Shareholder’s equity is the residual interest of the shareholders in the company and is calculated as the difference between Assets and Liabilities. Shareholders’ Equity Statement on the balance sheet shows the details of the change in the value of shareholder’s equity during a particular accounting period from its beginning till the end.

Explanation

The assets of the company are either financed by creditors or brought in by shareholders. Now, the creditors will be entitled to get paid to the extent they have contributed toward financing the assets. And the rest will be enjoyed by the shareholders. Shareholders are valued most because they share both profits and losses.

All the creditors who have invested in the assets are “liabilities” of business because they need to be paid irrespective of profit or loss of business. So they will be paid first. And then whatever is left remains intact for the shareholdersShareholdersA shareholder is an individual or an institution that owns one or more shares of stock in a public or a private corporation and, therefore, are the legal owners of the company. The ownership percentage depends on the number of shares they hold against the company's total shares.read more.

Thus, we can express assets in the following manner –

Assets = Liabilities + Shareholders Equity

If we can interchange the equation a bit, we will get the definition of shareholders’ equity formula Equity FormulaShareholder's equity can be calculated by deducting the total liabilities from the total assets of the company. It is a business's net value, or the amount that shareholders can claim if the company is liquidated and its debts are repaid.read more

Assets – Liabilities = Shareholders Equity

This residual interest (the difference between assets and liabilities) is called “capital” in the sole proprietorship business. The same is called the “sum of individual capital” in the partnership business.

Toshiba Shareholder's Equity 1

Components of Shareholders Equity

The following are components of shareholder’s equity.

Components of Shareholders Equity

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Source: Shareholders Equity (wallstreetmojo.com)

Instead of looking into a formula, we will look at the components which will help us understand what we need to take into account. Below is the snapshot of Amazon’s Shareholder’s Equity of 2015 and 2016

Amazon Shareholder's Equity

source: Amazon SEC Filings

#1 – Common Stock

Common Stock is the first and most important component. Common stockholders are the owners of the company. They are the ones who will receive the profits and deal with losses after the company pays interest and dividends to preference shareholders. And they also have voting rights.

Here’s how to calculate common stock –

Common Stock = Number of shares issue * Par value per share

There are two things to consider here – the number of authorized share capital and the number of shares issued. Numbers of authorized share capital represent the number of shares the company can issue legally. And the number of shares issued means the actual number of shares that the company has issued.

In Amazon, common stock outstanding is $5 million in both 2015 and 2016.

#2 – Additional paid-up capital

Additional means more than the share price. That means when the company receives a premium on the shares, we would call it additional paid-up capital. Here’s how to calculate it –

Additional paid-up capital = (Share Price – Par Value) * Number of shares issued

Additional paid-up capital for Amazon is $13,394 million and 17,186 million in 2015 and 2016, respectively.

#3 – Preferred Stock

Preferred stockholders are shareholders who have secondary rights in the net assetsNet AssetsThe net asset on the balance sheet is the amount by which your total assets exceed your total liabilities and is calculated by simply adding what you own (assets) and subtract it from whatever you owe (liabilities). It is commonly known as net worth (NW).read more. They don’t have voting rights, but they enjoy a fixed dividend even before anything is given to the common stockholders. Here’s how it is calculated –

Preferred Stock = Number of preferred shares issued * Par Value per share

There is no preferred stock in Amazon.

#4 – Retained Earnings

Retained earnings or losses are accumulated from the previous period. In simple terms, retained earnings are the amount the company keeps after paying the dividend from net income. This amount is reinvested in the company. Here’s how we would calculate retained earnings for the end of the period –

Particulars 
Retained Earnings at the beginning***
(+) Net Income for the year**
(-) Dividend paid**
(+/-) Any change in accounting policy*
Retained Earnings at the ending***

Retained Earnings for Amazon is $2,545 million and 4,916 million in 2015 and 2016, respectively.

#5 – Treasury shares

Treasury shares are the sum total of all the common shares that have been purchased back by the company. Thus, treasury shares are the opposite of common equity shares. Common stock has a credit balance, whereas treasury shares have a debit balanceDebit BalanceIn a General Ledger, when the total credit entries are less than the total number of debit entries, it refers to a debit balance. A debit balance is a net amount often calculated as debit minus credit in the General Ledger after recording every transaction.read more. That’s why all treasury shares are required to deduct from all equity components. Treasury Stock for Amazon is -$1,837 million for both 2015 and 2016.

#6 – Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income

Accumulated Other comprehensive income contains unrealized gains/losses that do not flow through the income statement. Examples are unrealized gains or lossesUnrealized Gains Or LossesUnrealized Gains or Losses refer to the increase or decrease respectively in the paper value of the company's different assets, even when these assets are not yet sold. Once the assets are sold, the company realizes the gains or losses resulting from such disposal.read more from investments classified as available for sale, foreign currency translationForeign Currency TranslationThe accounting method in which companies with international businesses translate the financials of their international subsidiaries into their domestic or functional currency in order to meet financial reporting requirements is known as foreign currency translation.read more gain/losses, pension plan gains/losses, etc.

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income for Amazon is -$723 million and -$985 million in 2015 and 2016, respectively.

#7 – Minority interest

This is an important part of shareholders’ equity. They have a minority stake in the company and no controlling power in the company like common stockholders. Minority shareholders are equity attributed to owners who are not of the parent company. Minority interestMinority InterestMinority interest is the investors' stakeholding that is less than 50% of the existing shares or the voting rights in the company. The minority shareholders do not have control over the company through their voting rights, thereby having a meagre role in the corporate decision-making.read more comes in the consolidated balance sheet. We can calculate it in the following way –

Minority Interest = Total Equity – Shareholders Equity attributed to the parent

So, now we can have a look at the formula –

Shareholders Equity 
Paid-in Capital: 
Common Stock***
Preferred Stock***
Additional Paid-up Capital: 
Common Stock**
Preferred Stock**
Retained Earnings***
(-) Treasury Shares(**)
(-) Translation Reserve(**)
Minority Interest***

There is no minority interest in Amazon.

Nestle Example

Equity  
Share CapitalShare CapitalShare capital refers to the funds raised by an organization by issuing the company's initial public offerings, common shares or preference stocks to the public. It appears as the owner's or shareholders' equity on the corporate balance sheet's liability side.read more319322
Treasury shares(7489)(3918)
Translation reserve(21129)(17255)
Retained Earnings & other reserves9063790981
Total equity attributable to shareholders of the parent6233870130
Non-controlling interest16481754
Total Equity6398671884
Total liabilities and equity123992133450

source: Nestle 2015 Financial Statements

We note that Shareholder’s Equity of Nestle is 63,986 million CHF and 133,450 million CHF in 2015 and 2014, respectively.

Please note that red highlighted items are what we deduct, i.e., treasury shares and translation reserve.

Once we add share capital and retained earnings and deduct treasury shares and translation reserve, we get the total equity attributable to shareholders of the parent company. Also, note that since it is a consolidated balance sheet, we need to take into account the non-controlling interest (minority interest), so we add minority interest to the total equity attributable to shareholders of the parent company. And as a result, we got total equity.

Shareholders Equity Examples

Example # 1

Mr. A has got hold of the balance sheet of Q Company. But while traveling, Mr. A lost the last part of the balance sheet. So how would he get to know about shareholder’s equity?

Here’s the remainder of the document.

Balance Sheet of ABC Company

 2016 (In US $)2015 (In US $)
Assets  
Current AssetsCurrent AssetsCurrent assets refer to those short-term assets which can be efficiently utilized for business operations, sold for immediate cash or liquidated within a year. It comprises inventory, cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts receivable, etc.read more300,000400,000
Investments45,00,00041,00,000
Plant & Machinery13,00,00016,00,000
Intangible AssetsIntangible AssetsIntangible Assets are the identifiable assets which do not have a physical existence, i.e., you can't touch them, like goodwill, patents, copyrights, & franchise etc. They are considered as long-term or long-living assets as the Company utilizes them for over a year. read more15,00010,000
Total Assets61,15,00061,10,000
Liabilities  
Current Liabilities200,0002,70,000
Long term LiabilitiesLong Term LiabilitiesLong Term Liabilities, also known as Non-Current Liabilities, refer to a Company’s financial obligations that are due for over a year (from its operating cycle or the Balance Sheet Date). read more1,15,0001,40,000
Total Liabilities3,15,0004,10,000

Here the calculation is easy. Though we would not be able to get the particulars of each item in shareholder’s equity, we will be able to find out the total amount.

All Mr. A needs to do is to deduct the total liabilities from the total assets.

 2016 (In US $)2015 (In US $)
Total Assets (A)61,15,00061,10,000
Total Liabilities (B)3,15,0004,10,000
SE (A – B)58,00,00057,00,000

Mr. A later went back to the office, sourced the whole balance sheet and saw the missing part of the balance sheet of Q company –

SE  
Preferred Stock550,000550,000
Common Stock50,00,00050,00,000
Retained Earnings250,000150,000
Total Shareholders  Equity58,00,00057,00,000
Total liabilities & Shareholders Equity61,15,00061,10,000

And he found that his calculation of total shareholder’s equity was absolutely correct.

Example # 2

Mr. S has the following information about Company Y –

ParticularsIn US $
Common Stock40,00,000
Preferred Stock800,000
Retained Earnings410,000
Accumulated Comprehensive Income (loss)(50,000)
Treasury Shares110,000
Minority Interest600,000

Calculate shareholder’s equity for Mr. S.

Here we have all the information we need. Now we will put the values according to the formula.

SE 
Paid-in Capital: 
Common Stock***
Preferred Stock***
Additional Paid-up Capital: 
Common Stock**
Preferred Stock**
Retained Earnings***
(-) Treasury Shares(**)
(-) Translation Reserve(**)
Minority Interest***

According to the formula, here’s the calculation below –

ParticularsIn US $
Common Stock40,00,000
Preferred Stock800,000
Retained Earnings410,000
Accumulated Comprehensive Income (loss)(50,000)
Treasury Shares(110,000)
Minority Interest600,000
Shareholders Equity56,50,000

Example # 3

Mr. T has the following information about Company W –

ParticularsIn US $
Number of Common Shares80,000
Number of Preferred Shares20,000
Share Price (Common Shares)150 per share
Share Price (Preferred Shares)130 per share
Par Value (Common Shares)100 per share
Par Value (Preferred Shares)100 per share
Treasury Shares100,000
Minority Interest300,000

Additional information for retained earnings are also given –

Particulars 
Retained Earnings at the beginning200,000
Net Income for the year500,000
Dividend paid100,000
Amount appreciated due to change in accounting policy50,000

Calculate the shareholder’s equity for Mr. T.

Let’s start with the calculation of retained earnings first, and then we will look at other items one by one.

Particulars 
Retained Earnings at the beginning200,000
(+)Net Income for the year500,000
(-)Dividend paid(100,000)
(+)Amount appreciated due to change in accounting policyAccounting PolicyAccounting policies refer to the framework or procedure followed by the management for bookkeeping and preparation of the financial statements. It involves accounting methods and practices determined at the corporate level.read more50,000
Retained Earnings at the ending650,000

Now, we will calculate the common stock.

ParticularsIn US $
Number of Common Shares (A)80,000
Par Value (Common Shares) (B)100
Common Stock (A * B)80,00,000

Now, we will calculate the preferred stock.

ParticularsIn US $
Number of Preferred Shares (A)20,000
Par Value (Preferred Shares) (B)100
Preferred Stock (A * B)20,00,000

We will look at the additional paid-up capital for common stock and preferred stock one by one.

To calculate the additional paid-up capital, we need to use the following formula –

Additional paid-up capital = (Share Price – Par Value) * Number of shares issued

ParticularsIn US $
Number of Common Shares (A)80,000
Share Price (Common Shares) (B)150
Par Value (Common Shares) (C)100
Difference (B – C)50
Additional Paid-up Capital (Common Stock)

 

[A * (B – C)]

40,00,000
ParticularsIn US $
Number of Preferred Shares (A)20,000
Share Price (Preferred Shares) (B)130
Par Value (Preferred Shares) (C)100
Difference (B – C)30
Additional Paid-up Capital (Preferred Stock)

 

[A * (B – C)]

600,000

Now we have all the information required to calculate shareholder’s equity. Let’s calculate it –

SE 
Paid-in Capital:In US $
Common Stock80,00,000
Preferred Stock20,00,000
Additional Paid-up Capital: 
Common Stock40,00,000
Preferred Stock600,000
Retained Earnings650,000
(-) Treasury Shares(100,000)
Minority Interest300,000
Total Shareholders’ Equity1,54,50,000

Statement of Changes in Shareholder’s Equity

Statement of Changes in Shareholder’s Equity provides a detailed breakup and explains the changes in Common Stock Shares, Treasury StockTreasury StockTreasury Stock is a stock repurchased by the issuance Company from its current shareholders that remains non-retired. Moreover, it is not considered while calculating the Company’s Earnings Per Share or dividends. read more, Additional Paid-in Capital, Accumulated Other comprehensive income, Retained Earnings, etc.

Let us look at Amazon’s Statement of Changes in Shareholder’s Equity.

Statement

Let us take an example of Retained Earnings from the above statement and see how it got changed over the years. We note from above that as of the

Shareholders Equity Statement Video

 

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