Demand Schedule

Updated on January 25, 2024
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

What is Demand Schedule?

A demand schedule is a tabular arrangement of different prices of a product or service and its quantity at various prices during a specific period. Examining the price and quantity demanded momentum in the table will reveal if demand is elastic or inelastic.

Plotting the data in the table on a graph depicts the demand curve, representing the connection between price and quantity desired. It frequently represents the law of demand, which asserts that demand rises when prices fall and vice versa if all other factors influencing demand stay constant.

Key Takeaways

  • The demand schedule lists quantities at different price levels in a table. The first column lists the price, and the second column lists the quantity. 
  • It helps in the visualization of the relationship between price and demand.  
  • According to the law of demand, price and demand share an inverse relationship: if a price increases, demand decreases given the condition, all other factors determining the demand remain constant. 
  • Economists often use this tool together with supply schedules. This way, they can compare how both supply and demand affect the prices of products.

Explanation

The demand schedule in economics shows the correlation between price and demand. For elastic goods, the quantity demandedQuantity DemandedQuantity demanded is the quantity of a particular commodity at a particular price. It changes with change in price and does not rely on market equilibrium.read more changes as the price changes, and the price and demand move in different directions at a significant pace. Compared to elastic goods, the change in demand in response to the price change will be gradual for inelastic goods. In the case of perfectly inelastic demandInelastic DemandInelastic demand refers to the minor change in the demand of the quantity or behaviour of consumers with a change in the product's price. Common examples of inelastic demand are gas and fuel, electricity, and consumer goods.read more, the quantity sought does not vary in response to price changes; it remains constant.

The core of the schedule is two columns. The first column represents an asset’s different prices, like the values during a whole year and the second column represents the quantity demanded corresponding to the listed prices. Altogether, the table presents a list of price and demand pairs disclosing the quantity preference in the market at a different price level. It is categorized into two types; Individual demand schedule representing the quantities demanded by a single entity at different prices, and market demand schedule representing the preferences of multiple entities or the total market.

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Practical Example

Let’s look into a demand schedule example to understand how it works.

Corey works as a manager for a car rental firm in the United States. He wants to see the link between the price of car rental services and how much they sell. According to the schedule, when they provided a car rental package for $5 per day, 610 customers took advantage of the service. However, he did find that increasing the price reduces the number of people who use the service. Only 460 individuals will purchase if the service costs $10, and 270 if the company charges $20. Customers will explore alternatives if they perceive it as pricey, may be overpriced, and unappealing.

The following table shows the changes in price and demand:

Market Demand Schedule

These prices can be put into perspective using a demand curveDemand CurveDemand Curve is a graphical representation of the relationship between the prices of goods and demand quantity and is usually inversely proportionate. That means higher the price, lower the demand. It determines the law of demand i.e. as the price increases, demand decreases keeping all other things equal.read more: The Y-axis will represent the price, while the X-axis will represent the demand.

Demand Curve

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Source: Demand Schedule (wallstreetmojo.com)

After visualizing the data, Corey can see that it’s not good to increase the price or continue the business after a certain point. Otherwise, he can use the information he organized to determine the best price. In the end, his decision will be based on which option is more profitable while still retaining enough demand. He will try to maximize the value of the service without losing the clients.

Demand and Supply Schedule

As the name signifies, the supply schedule portrays data in a table revealing how the supply of a product or service moves with changes in the price, unlike the demand schedule depicting the relationship between demand and price. Generally, a supply schedule indicates a positive correlationPositive CorrelationPositive Correlation occurs when two variables display mirror movements, fluctuating in the same direction, and are positively related. In layman's terms, if one variable increases by 10%, the other variable grows by 10% as well, and vice versa.read more between price and supply. In contrast, a demand and price table reveals the inverse correlationInverse CorrelationInverse correlation denotes an adverse relationship between two variables. Thus, the increase in the value of one variable results in the decrease of the other variable's value.read more between price and demand. Thus, it is easy to derive an upward sloping supply curveSupply CurveSupply curve represents the relationship between quantity and price of a product which the supplier is willing to supply at a given point of time. It is an upward sloping curve where the price of the product is represented along the y-axis and quantity on the x-axis.read more from the supply schedule. In the same way, the demand schedule yields a downward sloping demand curve.

A supply schedule shows how much a supplier can offer to the market at a specific price. The larger the production establishment is, the lower the price will be. When significant factors like the cost of inputs remain constant, large-scale production essentially makes the products cheaper to produce, so producers can sell them on the market for a lower value and beat competitors.

Limitations

While these demand and price representations are a handy guide, they have a few limitations. For instance, the law of demandLaw Of DemandThe Law of Demand is an economic concept that states that the prices of goods or services and the quantity demanded are inversely related when all other factors remain constant. In other words, when the price of a product rises, its demand falls, and when its price falls, its demand rises in the market.read more focuses on price and demand. However, several other factors may cause changes in the demand, like weather patterns, supply issues, and even sudden societal changes such as a pandemic. For example, amid the Covid 19 outbreak, airlines’ demand and supply historical data are drastically different. As a result, a demand schedule and demand curve based on past information is no longer applicable for future estimates to manage airline pricing.


Other factors may impact the consumers directly, too. They can include people’s level of income, personal tastes, preference for luxury goods, the impact of advertising, age, etc. Therefore, if these factors are at play, the whole demand curve may shift, causing economists to calculate everything again because of the new circumstances.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is the demand schedule and example?

The demand schedule definition in economics explains that it displays the total number of units of a product or service demanded at a specific price. Thus it is a numerical representation of the price-demand relationship. It can, for example, depict the quantity of demand for restaurant services at various pricing levels: when the restaurant prices rise, the number of people visiting restaurants reduces.

What are the different types of demand schedules?

It is categorized into two types. First, individual demand schedules indicate the amounts desired by a single entity at different prices. Whereas the table portraying the market demand illustrates the demand preferences of several entities or the whole market.

How do I make a demand schedule?

The primary step is to gather the relevant data about the prices and the quantities demanded to create the table. Therefore, the schedule in the table format should consist of two columns. The first column lists various prices during a specific period and the corresponding quantities demanded in the second column.

This has been a guide to what is Demand Schedule is and its Definition. Here we discuss limitations and practical examples of demand schedules with detailed explanations. You may learn more about our articles below on accounting –