## What is Aggregate Demand (AD)?

Aggregate Demand is the overall demand for all the goods and services in the country’s economy and is expressed as the total amount of the money exchanged for such goods and services. It equals the demand for the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country and describes the relationship between all the things bought within the country with their prices.

### Formula

The aggregate demand is calculated using the different components, including consumer spending, Government spending, investment spending, and the country’s net exports.

Aggregate Demand Formula (AD) = C + I + G + (X – M)

For eg:

• Consumer Spending (C) – It is the total spending of the families on the final products that are not used for the investment.
• Investment Spending (I) – The investment includes all those companies’ purchases for producing consumer goods. However, every purchase is not counted for the aggregate demand as the purchase that only replaces the existing item doesn’t add to the demand.
• Government Spending (G) – It includes the Spending of the Government on public goods and social services. Still, it does not include the transfer payments, like Social Security, Medicaid, medical care, etc., because they don’t create any demand.
• Exports (X) – It is the total value of a foreign country’s spending on the goods and services of the home country.
• Imports (M) – It is the total value of the home country’s spending on the goods and services imported from foreign countries. It will be deducted from the country’s value of exports to during the period.

The difference between exports (X) and imports (M) is also called net exports.

### Example of the Aggregate Demand

#### Example #1

Suppose during a year, in the country United States, Personal Consumption Expenditures was \$ 15 trillion,  Private investment and the corporate spending on the non-final capital goods was \$4 trillion, Government Consumption Expenditure was \$3 trillion, the value of exports was \$ 2 trillion, and the value of imports was \$1 trillion. Then calculate the aggregate demand of the U.S.

Where,

• C = \$ 15 trillion
• I = \$ 4 trillion
• G = \$ 3 trillion.
• Nx (Net Imports) = \$ 1 trillion (\$2 trillion – \$1 trillion)

Now,

• = C + I + G + Nx
• = \$ 15 + \$ 4 + \$ 3 + \$ 1 trillion
• = \$ 23 trillion

Thus the AD of the U.S. during the period is \$ 23 trillion.

#### Example #2

An Economist compares the aggregate demand of two economies – Economic A and Economic B. He gets the following data:

Calculate and find out which economy has a higher aggregate demand.

Solution:

For Economy A

For Economy B

Aggregate demand for Economy A is \$115 million, and that of Economy B is \$160 million.

Therefore, the size of Economy B is larger.

1. It helps in knowing the total demand for all the goods and services in the economy during the given period.
2. It is used by many economists and market analysts for their research.
3. The Aggregate demand curve helps in knowing the effect of change in prices of the goods or the services in an economy on the demand of the products.

1. The calculation of the aggregate demand does not give proof that with the increase in the AD, there will be growth in the economy. As the and aggregate demand is the same, they only increase concurrently, and it does not show cause and effect.
2. In the calculation of AD, many of the different economic transactions between the country’s millions of individuals for different purposes are involved, making it difficult to calculate variations, run regressions, etc.

### Important points

1. The aggregate demand curve slopes downward from left to right. When the prices of the goods or services increase or decrease, the demand for the product will also either increase or decrease along with the curve. Also, there can be a shift in the curve when there are changes in the money supply in the economy or an increase or decrease in the rate of tax applicable in the country’s economy.
2. As the market values measure the AD in a country, it represents only the total output at the given price level, which may not necessarily represent the quality of the things or the standard of living of the country’s people.

### Conclusion

Aggregate Demand is the overall demand for all the goods and services in the country’s economy. It is a macroeconomic term, describing the relationship between all the things bought within the country and their prices.

Like the AD in a country is measured by the market values, so it represents only the total output at a given price level which may not necessarily represent the quality of the things or the standard of living of the country’s people. It is computed by adding expenditure on the goods and services purchased by the consumers, investment, spending by the government, and the net exports of the country.

### Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to Aggregate Demand and its definition. Here we discuss how to calculate aggregate demand using its formula and practical examples. You can learn more about accounting from the following articles –