What is the Q Ratio?
Q Ratio is used to determine the valuation of the company or the market at large to know whether it is overvalued or undervalued and is calculated as the ratio of the market value of the company’s physical assets and the net worth of the company. This ratio was developed by James Tobin, an expert and Nobel Laureate in economics, and is used in amalgamations, mergers, and other valuation models to determine the company’s actual worth.
- If the Q ratio is greater than one, it indicates that the company is earning well and has good returns. It is an indication that if the company goes into liquidationLiquidationLiquidation is the process of winding up a business or a segment of the business by selling off its assets. The amount realized by this is used to pay off the creditors and all other liabilities of the business in a specific order., then the investors’ funds are safe, and the company’s assets are capable enough to repay all the debts.
- If the ratio is lower than 1, it indicates that the company’s worth is undervalued. A ratio equal to 1 indicates that the company or market is fairly valued.
Table of contents
The formula of Q Ratio
Q Ratio = Market Value of Assets / Replacement Cost of Capital
- The market value of assets reflects all the assets’ current market value, whether movable or immovable.
- Replacement costReplacement CostReplacement Cost is the capital amount required to replace the current asset with a similar one at the present market rate. Usually, assets replacement occurs when their repair & maintenance charges surge beyond a reasonable level. indicates that if assets are sold today, then what will be the value that the company can collect if it liquidates.
Eventually, the valuers find it difficult to determine the replacement cost of all the assets. Hence the ratio was modified as under:
Q Ratio = Market Value of Equity + Market Value of Liabilities / Book Value of Equity + Market Value of Liabilities.
The formula for the overall market is as under:
Q Ratio = Value of Stock Market / Corporate Net Worth.
- The value of the stock market is the value of all the securities listed on the stock market, and corporate net worthCorporate Net WorthThe company's net worth can be calculated using two methods: the first is to subtract total liabilities from total assets, and the second is to add the company's share capital (both equity and preference) as well as reserves and surplus. is the sum of the net worth of all the companies listed on the stock marketStock MarketStock Market works on the basic principle of matching supply and demand through an auction process where investors are willing to pay a certain amount for an asset, and they are willing to sell off something they have at a specific price..
The Book Value of AssetsBook Value Of AssetsBook Value of Assets is the asset's value in the books of records of a company or an institution at any given instance. Assets Book Value Formula = Total Value of an Asset – Depreciation – Other Expenses Directly Related to it of the company is $ 40 Million, and the company has 5 Million shares outstanding trading at $ 10/ share. Determine the Q ratio and analyze whether the company is earning well and enjoying benefits or is undervalued based on your calculations.
Calculation of Q Ratio can be done as follows –
- = 50/40
- = 1.25
As the ratio is greater than 1, the company is performing well and enjoying goodwill.
Determine the Value of the Company
It is used to determine the company’s value to evaluate whether the securities are overvaluedOvervaluedOvervalued Stocks refer to stocks having more current market value than their real earning potential or the P/E Ratio. Overvaluation of stocks might occur due to illogical decision making or deterioration in a Company’s financial health. or undervalued.
Valuation of Company or Goodwill
It is commonly used in the valuation of a company in case of sale or absorption of the company to determine the true value. It is also used in determining theGoodwill valuation is the systematic evaluation of the goodwill of the company to be shown in the balance of the company under the head intangible assets and top methods to value include Average Profits Method, Capitalization Method, weighted average profit method and the Super Profits Method. value of goodwillValue Of GoodwillGoodwill valuation is the systematic evaluation of the goodwill of the company to be shown in the balance of the company under the head intangible assets and top methods to value include Average Profits Method, Capitalization Method, weighted average profit method and the Super Profits Method. as if the ratio is greater than 1; it shows that the company has goodwill, and because of it, the company is earning well.
Used in Amalgamation, Mergers, and De-Mergers
It is useful in amalgamationsAmalgamationsAmalgamation is the consolidation or combination of two or more companies, known as amalgamating companies, usually in the same or similar line of business, to produce a new legal entity, known as the amalgamated company, with the same shareholders, assets, and liabilities., mergersMergersMerger refers to a strategic process whereby two or more companies mutually form a new single legal venture. For example, in 2015, ketchup maker H.J. Heinz Co and Kraft Foods Group Inc merged their business to become Kraft Heinz Company, a leading global food and beverage firm., and de-mergers to determine the company’s value to compensate the shareholders based on the valuation and Q Ratio.
- Banks also use it to approve the loan and determine the repayment capacity.
- Liquidators use it at times of valuation to analyze the position and worth of the company.
- Credit rating agencies also use it to analyze the ratings to be given to the company.
- It is commonly used in the company’s valuation, the valuation of goodwill, etc.
- Banks and financial institutionsFinancial InstitutionsFinancial institutions refer to those organizations which provide business services and products related to financial or monetary transactions to their clients. Some of these are banks, NBFCs, investment companies, brokerage firms, insurance companies and trust corporations. apply this ratio to know the worth of a potential client.
- It is applied to know the company’s real net worth and standing in the market.
- Foreign or International investors apply the market Q Ratio to determine whether the investment will be beneficial or not.
- It is also applied by analysts to analyze the position of a particular company or market at large to estimate future situations.
- Helpful in amalgamation, merger, and other transactions to determine the actual net worth.
- Helpful in analyzing the benefits of investment.
- With Q Ratio, the potential of the market can be determined.
- It is an effective tool for attracting foreign investment.
- The market volatility can be controlled to the extent with the help of this ratio.
- It is calculated based on market value, and the market is always ascertained, i.e., market situations can change positively or negatively.
- The real potential of the company is ignored while calculating the Q Ratio.
- Some companies got the under-valuation price due to the calculation method by the market value approach.
- Sometimes it becomes very difficult to determine the market value because of unique features or self-created assets
This has been a guide to what Q Ratio is and its definition. Here we discuss the formula, example, and uses of the q ratio along with applications, advantages, and disadvantages. You may learn more about financing from the following articles –