What is Amalgamation?

Amalgamation is the consolidation or combination of two or more companies known as the amalgamating companies usually the companies that operate in the same or similar line of business to form a completely new company known as the amalgamated company with new legal existence but same existing shareholders and assets & liabilities.

To start with the basics, the most commonly adopted definition is

  1. Amalgamation is a combination of two or more companies into a new entity. Company A and B combine to form a new entity, C.
  2. It also includes Absorption. Absorption means that company A takes over company B, and the B is wound up.
What is amalgamation

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The two most commonly used terms in amalgamation while referring to the companies are ‘transferor company’ and ‘transferee company.’

The transferor company is the amalgamating company, and the transferee company is the amalgamated company.

Types of Amalgamation

Nature of merger

It is said to be in nature of mergerMergerMerger refers to a strategic process whereby two or more companies mutually form a new single legal venture. For example, in 2015, ketchup maker H.J. Heinz Co and Kraft Foods Group Inc merged their business to become Kraft Heinz Company, a leading global food and beverage more on the satisfaction of the following five conditions:

Nature of the purchase

If any of the above conditions are not met, then it is said to be in the nature of the purchase.

Need for amalgamation

  1. It helps in availing of various tax benefitsTax BenefitsTax benefits refer to the credit that a business receives on its tax liability for complying with a norm proposed by the government. The advantage is either credited back to the company after paying its regular taxation amount or deducted when paying the tax liability in the first more. Many times it takes place as a measure of tax planningTax PlanningTax planning is the process of minimizing the tax liability by making the best use of all available deductions, allowances, rebates, thresholds, and so on as permitted by income tax laws and rules imposed by a country's government. It contributes to better cash flow and liquidity management for taxpayers, as well as better retirement plans and investment more.
  2. By uniting through the way of amalgamation, companies take advantage of large economies of scale.
  3. It also helps in the elimination of competition amongst a similar group of industries. Sometimes, it also helps in the creation of a monopoly in the market.
  4. It is always viewed as an icon of growth; it generally increases the value of the companies.
  5. It carries prospects of financial and capital- growth & development.
  6. It provides synergy benefits. In simple terms, it means the benefits derived due to the combination.

Process of Amalgamation 

During the entire process, one has to take care of the various set of laws, rules, regulations, legislations, etc. The applicability of different laws changes from case to case. Every case has to be considered separately for determining the ambit of the applicable laws. Also, it varies from country to country. For eg.: In India, Company Law, SEBI Law, RBI Rules & Regulations, FEMA, Income Tax Law, etc. has to be followed. These laws provide a legal framework for all the activities carried out under the scheme of amalgamation. Drafting the scheme of amalgamation, conducting board meetings, getting the board’s approval, consent of shareholders, filing various forms with ROC, informing the Stock ExchangesStock ExchangesStock exchange refers to a market that facilitates the buying and selling of listed securities such as public company stocks, exchange-traded funds, debt instruments, options, etc., as per the standard regulations and guidelines—for instance, NYSE and more, Advertisements in newspapers, etc. are few of the legal steps involved. Everything needs to be done within the legal horizons of the respective countries.

Other Procedures

  • Due diligence is conducted for the corporate restructuring reforms like amalgamation, which gives a fair idea about the deals are viable or not. It considers various aspects and so there exist different kinds of due diligence such as financial due diligence, legal due diligence, operational due diligence, etc.
  • Valuation is done for the businesses which are getting amalgamated. Pre-and-post amalgamation valuation is done and compared to know the value or worth. Now, valuation is altogether a vast area, which is a subjective exercise based upon numerous facts and assumptions.
  • Next comes the deal presented by one to the other/(s), which intends to get amalgamated. The structuring of this deal is a tedious task. Many negotiations take place in the process of amalgamation. Negotiation is also an essential skill as it is very much required to come upon a successful conclusion and finalization of the deal.
  • The costs are very high, so one needs to conduct a CBA analysisCBA AnalysisCost-benefit analysis is the technique used by the companies to arrive at a critical decision after working out the potential returns of a particular action and considering its overall costs. Some of these models include Net Present Value, Benefit-Cost Ratio more before entering into any amalgamation. The sharing or bearing of such costs has to be decided in advance.
  • Finally, a legal agreement is signed between parties for amalgamation. The real test starts after the commencement. The successful deal should not confine itself only to papers, but the post amalgamation operations should work for the results the companies were expecting.

Problems of Amalgamation

  1. Though change is the law of nature, we all would agree that changes are complicated and not easily welcomed by us; the same goes for mergers.
  2. There are cultural differences, especially in the case of cross border merger. People don’t work in harmony; there are signs of discontentment.
  3. It is not possible every time that one gets a win-win situation out of amalgamations. One has to be ever ready for facing trials and tribulations.
  4. The attitude of the management is not always friendly; the hostile kind of attitude of the management is a sign of danger.

Examples of Amalgamation in Recent Times

Examples of Amalgamation

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Heinz and Kraft Foods

Toyota Mergers

E-Bay and Paypal

  • The reason behind this E-Bay and Paypal merger was a dependency on each other.
  • The Paypal was dependent on E-bay for the majority of its income.
  • The payment businesses are dependent on the volume of transactions & the Paypal was dependent on E-bay for this volume.
  • This merger could not continue for a long, and again E-bay and Paypal parted their ways approximately after 12 years of its unity.
  • The cost of the merger was approximately $1.5 billion.

Dow Chemical & Dupont

Citicorp and Travelers Group

  • This merger was meant to create one of the most significant mergers in the sector of financial services of banking, insurance, and investment operations.
  • It was done to bring various clients together who make use of the financial services and keen to invest in the markets. This move would increase its client base on individual levels.
  • Through this measure, the investment products were made available to all kinds of customers.
  • The cost of the merger was approximately $140 billion.


In a nutshell, we can conclude that mergers are dependent on various factors, and there is a reason behind every merger. The activity of a merger is an extended exercise wherein multiple courses of action have to be conducted to decide whether the merger will be fruitful or not. The work doesn’t end when the two companies get amalgamated, but a new journey starts from this very point. To make this a sure shot of success, efforts must be taken at the post amalgamation stage. It should bring about the optimum utilization of resources. The companies have to strive for growth and development continuously.

Amalgamation Video

Reader Interactions


  1. Netra Thorat says

    thank you so much….ur great information , proper presentation & point to point information helped me for my exams.

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