What is Replacement Cost?
Replacement cost is a cost that is required to replace any existing asset having similar characteristics. An organization often chooses to replace its assets when the repair and maintenance costs increase beyond an acceptable level over some time. The company involves the insurance company to do the needful. It is found out by calculating the present valuePresent ValuePresent Value (PV) is the today's value of money you expect to get from future income. It is computed as the sum of future investment returns discounted at a certain rate of return expectation. followed by its useful life.
The insurance company’s primary function is to evaluate whether the decision of replacement is better than repair and maintenance. It is also vital for a company to correctly calculate the depreciationCalculate The DepreciationThe Depreciation Expense Formula computes how much of the asset's value can be deducted as an expense on the income statement. Formula for Straight-line depreciation method= Cost of an asset - Residual value/useful life of an asset. since it will have a significant impact on the decision to continue the old asset or replace it with a new one. Sometimes it becomes a challenge to estimate the correct market value of the asset, and hence it may lead to making wrong decisions by the organization.
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- Suppose a company bought machinery for $ 2,500 ten years ago. The company has to decide whether it is good to replace the machinery and buy a new one or continue with the old one. The present value of the machinery is $1,000 after depreciation. Suppose the replacement cost for that machinery comes out to be $2,000.
- In this case, the management should replace the machinery since it will add value to the business in the future.
- A company has been using its machinery for several years, and theBook Value of Assets is the asset's value in the books of records of a company or an institution at any given instance. Assets Book Value Formula = Total Value of an Asset – Depreciation – Other Expenses Directly Related to it book value of the assetBook Value Of The AssetBook Value of Assets is the asset's value in the books of records of a company or an institution at any given instance. Assets Book Value Formula = Total Value of an Asset – Depreciation – Other Expenses Directly Related to it is $ 5,000. The remaining useful life of the assetRemaining Useful Life Of The AssetUseful life is the estimated time period for which the asset is expected to be functional and can be put to use for the company’s core operations. It serves as an important input for calculating depreciation for assets which affects the profitability and carrying value of the assets. is two years now. If, after two years, the asset value becomes $ 8,000, and the discount rate is 5%, the present value of the replacement cost will be $ 8,000 / (1.05)*(1.05) = $ 7,256.
- A company is in the transport business. They own several trucks and vans. One fine day, the truck got heavily damaged while delivering the goods. The company claimed the insured amount from the insurance company since the truck was insured. The insurance company, after an investigation, found that the truck was $ 15,000 2 years ago, now the same truck in the market with the same features, and the company is valued at $ 20,000 today.T
- Therefore the replacement cost is $ 20,000. But there is a twist: if a similar truck in the market is valued at $13,000, the insurance company will only pay $ 13,000 and not the one decided by the company. Therefore for the insurance company, the replacement cost will be the lowest cost possible for any asset available in the market with similar features and utility.
- It is a very simple technique that anyone with little knowledge of profit and loss can adopt.
- The company can estimate the present value and depreciationDepreciationDepreciation is a systematic allocation method used to account for the costs of any physical or tangible asset throughout its useful life. Its value indicates how much of an asset’s worth has been utilized. Depreciation enables companies to generate revenue from their assets while only charging a fraction of the cost of the asset in use each year. and then can decide whether the asset needs replacement or not.
- They also help the organization in cost budgeting and hence maintain a healthy financial practice to plan the finances so that the company can benefit from the same.
- It helps the insurance company to settle the claims. The replacement cost coverage is made so that the policyholder will not be at a loss, and the assured sum will be equivalent to the asset to be replaced.
- It also helps in finding labor-intensiveLabor-intensiveLabor intensive implies those tasks which require a heavy workforce for accomplishment. In the production of goods and services, the industry is considered labour intensive if the manufacturing process relies more on human resource than machinery. replacements for the company. The HR policy of the organisation also considers the replacement technique to conclude.
- The company may use the replacement cost to increase its valuation. The historical costHistorical CostThe historical cost of an asset refers to the price at which it was first purchased or acquired. of calculating any tangible assetTangible AssetTangible assets are assets with significant value and are available in physical form. It means any asset that can be touched and felt could be labeled a tangible one with a long-term valuation. will also be less than its replacement cost, so the company may use it to enhance the balance sheet figure of the asset.
- The premium that an insurance company demands is usually higher. Therefore it is challenging for the policyholder to pay such premiums to get their assets insured.
- The replacement cost for the insured assets if the damage is determined with the lowest price possible; therefore, sometimes, it is challenging for the company to cope with the loss.
- Suppose any company follows a replacement cost basis to get their claims settled from the insurance company. In that case, they may have to settle for the loss because the lesser amount of the asset is usually settled. Still, if the company intends to follow the actual cash value of the asset, then the company will be in a neutral position.
- It does not help certain value items like antiques, etc. Some special treatment is required.
- This cost depends on many factors. E.g., market condition, change in demand, asset’s useful lives, etc. Therefore, these conditions should be there to get the correct replacement value, and all these factors are not always available to the organization.
- The current market value of inventories is not available for any organization. Therefore, the replacement valuation does not help here. The inventory valuation keeps the unrealized profits and lossUnrealized Profits And LossUnrealized Gains or Losses refer to the increase or decrease respectively in the paper value of the company's different assets, even when these assets are not yet sold. Once the assets are sold, the company realizes the gains or losses resulting from such disposal. calculation after the close of the balance sheet.
The replacement cost technique is beneficial for those who can take advantage of the same. This method is not helpful for those businesses where the current market price is not available. The insurance company uses this type of technique to find out the replacement cost of the asset, which is considered. The policy is designed so that the policyholder gets some benefit from the insurance companies. Still, sometimes the settlement of the claims is done with a lesser amount than the asset’s actual value.
The company should make a wise decision by carefully calculating this cost by comparing its repair and maintenance costs, which can be levied over the years if the asset is not replaced.
This article has been a guide to what replacement cost is and its definition. Here we discuss examples of replacement costs related to insurance companies along with advantages and disadvantages. You can learn more about investment from the following articles –