# Support Vector Machine

Last Updated :

21 Aug, 2024

Blog Author :

N/A

Edited by :

Raisa Ali

Reviewed by :

Dheeraj Vaidya

Table Of Contents

## What Is Support Vector Machine (SVM)?

Support Vector Machine (SVM) in machine learning is a regression and classification tool used for prediction by means of machine learning theory. It is used to prevent overfitting and maximize predictive accuracy. The model is one of the most adaptable and powerful machine learning techniques available.

It provides a logical solution to machine learning problems, as the support vector machine algorithm is based on statistical learning theory. The technique has been widely utilized for problems including novelty detection, regression, feature selection, and classification. It is often used for pattern classification and regression tasks. Other applications include handwriting analysis, facial analysis, and more.

#### Table of Contents

- Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a statistical model used in regression and classification problems, trained using an optimization theory learning algorithm.
- It's particularly useful for stock market analysis because it handles complex patterns and non-linear correlations, providing insights for informed trading decisions.
- The types of SVM are linear and non-linear. Linear SVMs divide data into distinct classes without any changes, while non-linear SVMs are for data that is not linearly separable.
- SVMs offer advantages like easy training, high-dimensional efficiency, error control, versatility, and memory efficiency but have disadvantages like kernel function selection and overfitting.

### Support Vector Machine In Finance Explained

A support vector machine in machine learning is a type of learning technique that is part of the generalized linear classifier family and is useful for regression and classification. They use linear functions in a high-dimensional feature space and are trainable using an optimization theory learning algorithm with a statistical learning theory bias.

Its ability to handle intricate patterns and non-linear correlations in data makes it an extremely useful tool for stock market analysis. An SVM model learns patterns and correlations within the data by getting training on historical stock market data. This allows the model to find complicated patterns that may be difficult for linear models to grasp. The reasons behind SVM's efficacy in stock market analysis include its capacity to handle high-dimensional data, identify non-linear correlations, and tolerate anomalies. Since it concentrates on support vectors—data points closest to the hyperplane or decision surface—it is dependable when extreme observations are present.

SVM's generalization capabilities enable it to forecast new, unseen data based on the patterns discovered during training. Insights into the significance of several variables in stock price prediction can also be derived; aiding investors in recognizing possible buy or sell opportunities, optimizing portfolio allocation, and successfully managing risk. SVM can help investors anticipate price movements more accurately and make informed trading decisions by aiding in the stock market analysis.

### Types

The types of SVM are as follows:

**Linear SVM:**Linear SVMs apply to linearly separable data, which indicates that no changes are required to the data to divide it into distinct classes. (When data points are perfectly linearly separable, a single straight line (if 2D) can be used to classify the data points into two classes.)**Non-Linear SVM:**This technique is used when the data is not linearly separable, i.e., when the data points cannot be classified into two classes using a straight line (assuming the data is two-dimensional), then more sophisticated methods such as kernel tricks are used.

### Examples

Let us look into a few examples to understand the concept better.

#### Example #1

Suppose Danny, an investor, is developing a pattern recognition system to predict stock price movements using SVM. He collects historical stock market data, labels it based on the stock price increase or decrease in the recorded periods, and trains an SVM model to recognize patterns indicating potential future price movements. The model learns complex relationships between input features and target variables (price movement). He uses it for predicting stock price movements. The trained support vector machine algorithm model also applies to analyze real-time or future data, predicting stock price movements based on recognized patterns, allowing Danny to make trading decisions for specific stocks.

#### Example #2

Another example is the process of news categorization using SVM-based classifiers, focusing on LS-SVM (Least-squares Support Vector Machines), TWSVM (Twin Support Vector Machines), and LS-TWSVM (Least-squares Twin Support Vector Machines) with the One-Against-All approach for multi-category extension of SVM. The algorithm represents a generic approach to classify multi-category text data using a single hyperplane or pair of nonparallel hyperplane classifiers. The experiment evaluates the classifiers' usability and efficacy for News classification on Reuters and 20 Newsgroups datasets.

### Advantages And Disadvantages

Some of the advantages and disadvantages of SVM are as follows:

**Advantages**

- They can be trained easily and are relatively easy to use.
- Efficient in places with spaces of high dimensions.
- The tradeoff between errors and classifier complexities can be controlled.
- It is beneficial in situations with more dimensions than samples but still effective.
- It is memory efficient since it uses a subset of training points called support vectors in the decision function.
- They are versatile. The decision function can specify a variety of kernel functions. Custom kernels can be specified in addition to the common kernels that are given.

**Disadvantages**

- A good kernel function selection is important.
- A regularization term is essential, and it is important to prevent overfitting when selecting kernel functions if there are significantly more features than samples.
- SVMs do not directly provide probability estimates; instead, they happen through a five-fold cross-validation process.

### Support Vector Machine vs Logistic Regression vs Random Forest

The differences between the three are as follows:

Points | Support Vector Machine | Logistic Regression | Random Forest |
---|---|---|---|

Concept | It is a learning technique employed for both classification and regression purposes. | Logistic regression entails modeling the probability of a discrete outcome based on input variables. | Random Forest is a frequently utilized machine learning algorithm that aggregates the outcomes of numerous decision trees to produce a unified result. |

Model | It is a generalized linear model. | It is a generalized linear model. | It is not a generalized linear model. |

Data | It works with linear and non-linear data. | It typically operates on linear data. | It operates on linear data and non-linear data. |

Deals with | SVM looks into both classification and regression problems. | It is applied primarily to classification problems. | It addresses both classification and regression problems. |

### Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

**What is the importance of Support Vector Machines?**

Support Vector Machines (SVM) utilize an optimal hyperplane to separate classes or predict continuous values. It maximizes the margin between classes and utilizes support vectors, which are the closest data points to the decision boundary.

**Is the Support Vector Machine supervised or unsupervised?**

SVM is a supervised learning algorithm that requires labeled training data associated with specific classes or target values. It learns patterns and relationships in the labeled data to make predictions on unseen data.

**What is a Support Vector Machine Classifier?**

An SVM classifier is an application of a Support Vector Machine for classification tasks. The SVM for classification assigns data points to classes based on the learned decision boundary, aiming to maximize separation between classes while considering the margin and support vectors.

**What is Support Vector Regression?**

Support Vector Regression (SVR) is the SVM for regression, a variation designed for continuous value prediction. SVR, or the SVM for regression, finds a hyperplane that best fits the training data while minimizing the deviation between predicted and actual values.

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