# AND Function in Excel

## AND Function in Excel

The AND Function in excel is a logical function that tests multiple conditions and returns “true” or “false” depending on whether they are met or not. The formula of AND function is “=AND(logical1,[logical2]…),” where “logical1” is the first condition to evaluate.

For eg:
Source: AND Function in Excel (wallstreetmojo.com)

### Syntax of the AND Function

The syntax is stated as follows:

The function accepts the following arguments:

• Logical 1: This is the first condition or logical value to evaluate.
• Logical 2: This is the second condition or logical value to evaluate.

The “logical 1” is a mandatory argument and “logical 2” is an optional argument.

### The Characteristics of AND Function

• It returns “true” if all conditions or logical values evaluate to true.
• It returns “false” if any of the conditions or logical values evaluates to false.
• It can have more logical values depending on the situation and the requirement.
• It treats the value zero as “false” and all non-zero values as “true” while evaluating numbers.
• It ignores empty cells provided as an argument.
• It is often used in combination with other like IF, OR, and so on.

### The Output of AND Function

The output in different situations is given as follows:

The output while evaluating numbers is given as follows:

### How to Use AND Function in Excel?

It is easy to use the AND function. Let us understand its working with the help of a few examples.

You can download this AND Function Excel Template here – AND Function Excel Template

#### Example #1–AND Function

There are three levels and ten players in a game. To be a winner, a player has to clear all three levels. The player loses if he/she fails in any of the three levels.

The performance of the players in different levels is given in the following table. We are required to determine the winner.

We apply AND formula in column E.

The output of the formula appears in column E.

Player 2 and player 10 have cleared all the levels. Since all the logical conditions for these two players are met, the AND function gives the output “true.”

The rest of the players were unable to clear all three levels. If any of the levels is not cleared, the AND function returns “false.”

#### Example #2–AND Function With Nested IF Function

Let us consider the following example.

We have the marks (in percentage) of ten students in a school. We have to determine the grade obtained by each student according to the criteria given.

A student obtains “A+” if he/she scores more than 90%. If the percentage is greater than or equal to 80% but less than or equal to 90%, grade “A” is given.

If the percentage is less than 40%, the student fails. Likewise, the grades for the different percentages are given in the following table.

We apply the following formula.

“=IF(B2>90,”A+”,IF(AND(B2<=90,B2>80),”A”,IF(AND(B2<=80,B2>75),”B+”,IF(AND(B2<=75,B2>70),”B”,IF(AND(B2<=70,B2>60),”C+”,IF(AND(B2<=60,B2>50),”C”,IF(AND(B2<=50,B2>40),”D”,”FAIL”)))))))”

We use the with multiple AND functions to compute the grades. The latter allows testing two conditions together.

The syntax of the IF function is stated as follows:

“=IF(logical_test,[value_if_true],[value_if_false])”

The IF function returns “true” if the condition is met, else returns “false.”

The first logical test is “B2>90.” If this condition is “true,” grade “A+” is assigned. If this condition is “false,” the IF function evaluates the next condition.

The next is “B2<=90, B2>80.” If this condition is “true,” grade “A” is assigned. If this condition is “false,” the next statement is evaluated. Likewise, the IF function tests every condition given in the formula.

The last logical test is “B2<=50, B2>40.” If this condition is “true,” grade “D” is assigned, else the student fails.

We apply the formula to all categories of students, as shown in the following image.

The output of the formula is shown in the succeeding image.

#### Example #3–AND Function With Nested IF Function

The name of employees and the generated by them for an organization are shown in the succeeding image. Every employee is given a monetary incentive depending on the total sales made by him/her.

We have to calculate the incentives of all the employees based on their performance.

The incentive criteria followed by the organization is given in the succeeding table.

We apply the following formula.

“=IF(AND(B2>=3000),400,IF(AND(B2>=2000,B2<3000),200,IF(AND(B2>=1500,B2<2000),150,IF(AND(B2>=1000,B2<1500),100,0))))”

We useand multiple AND functions to calculate the incentives received by all the employees, as shown in the following table.

Roman generates sales revenue of \$3000. So, he receives an incentive amount of \$400.

The revenue generated by David and Tom is \$500 and \$600, respectively. To be eligible for an incentive, minimum sales of \$1000 is required. Hence, they do not get any incentive.

### Nesting of AND Function in Excel

A nested function refers to using a function inside another Excel function. In Excel, the nesting of functions up to 64 levels is allowed.

#### Example #4–Nested AND Function

We have a list of candidates who wish to join the Army subject to certain conditions. The eligibility criteria are stated as follows:

• The age should be greater than or equal to 18, but less than 35 years.
• The height should be greater than 167 cm.
• The eyesight should be normal.
• The candidate must have completed the long-run task.

We need to find out the candidates who are eligible for joining the Army.

To evaluate the candidates on the given parameters, we use the nested AND function.

We apply the following formula.

“=AND(B2=”Normal”,C2>167,D2=”Successful”,AND(E2>=18,E2<35))”

We evaluate multiple logical conditions simultaneously. We also check whether the age is within the prescribed limit or not. So, we use the AND function inside another AND function.

The output of the formula is shown in the succeeding image.

The candidates Ralph, Alex, and Scott pass the selection criteria. Hence, their eligibility output (in column F) is “true.” The remaining candidates are not eligible for joining the Army.

### Limitations of AND Function

The limitations are listed as follows:

• With Excel 2007 onwards, the AND function can test up to 255 arguments given that the length of the formula does not exceed 8,162 characters.
• In Excel 2003 and previous versions, the AND function can test up to 30 arguments given that the length of the formula does not exceed 1,024 characters.
• The AND function returns “” if logical conditions are passed as text or if none of the arguments evaluates to a logical value.
• The AND function returns “#VALUE! error” if all the arguments provided are empty cells.

The following two images show the output of the AND function when an empty cell and a text string is provided as an argument.

#1 – When should the AND function of Excel be used

The OR function helps compare two values or statements. The AND function is combined with the OR function by the following formulas:
The function is used in the following situations:

– It is used when several conditions need to be tested at the same time.
– It is used when there is a need to make sure that all the conditions are met.
– It is used with the IF function when more than one condition has to be tested.
– It is used with the to find all values between two given values.
– It is used with the to compare values.

#2 – How is the AND function used with the OR function in Excel?

The OR function helps compare two values or statements. The AND function is combined with the OR function by the following formulas:

“=AND(OR(Condition1,Condition2),Condition3)”
“=AND(OR(Condition1,Condition2),OR(Condition3,Condition4)”
“=OR(AND(Condition1,Condition2),Condition3)”
“=OR(AND(Condition1,Condition2),AND(Condition3,Condition4))”

#3 – What is the difference between AND, IF, and OR functions in Excel?

The difference between the three functions is stated as follows:

– The AND function helps evaluate multiple conditions at the same time. It returns “true” when all conditions are true; otherwise, it returns “false.”
– The IF function helps compare the value with the result expected by the user. It returns specific values for the “true” and “false” outcomes.
– The OR function helps compare two values or two statements. It returns “true” when at least one of the specified conditions is met. It returns “false” if all the logical values evaluate to false.

###### Key Takeaways
• The AND function tests multiple conditions and returns “true” or “false” depending upon whether they are met or not.
• The AND function returns “true” if all conditions evaluate to true and returns “false” if any of the conditions evaluates to false.
• The AND function treats the value zero as “false.”
• The AND function can test up to 255 arguments in the latest versions of Excel.
• The AND function returns “#VALUE! error” if logical conditions are passed as a text.
• The formula of the IF function is “=IF(logical_test,[value_if_true],[value_if_false]).”

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This has been a guide to AND Function in Excel. Here we discuss how to use AND Formula in Excel along with examples and downloadable excel templates. You may also look at these useful functions in Excel –

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