Logical Test in Excel

Article byJeevan A Y
Edited byAshish Kumar Srivastav
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

A logical test means having an analytical output that is either TRUE or FALSE. In Excel, we can perform a logical test for any situation. The most commonly used logical test is using the equals to the operator, which is “=” if we use =A1=B1 in cell A2, then it will return TRUE if the values are equal and FALSE if the values are not equal.

What is the Logical Test in Excel?

In Excel, at the beginning stages of learning, it is not easy to understand the concept of logical tests. But once you master this, it will be a valuable skill for your CV. More often than not, in Excel, we use a logical test to match multiple criteriaMatch Multiple CriteriaCriteria based calculations in excel are performed by logical functions. To match single criteria, we can use IF logical condition, having to perform multiple tests, we can use nested IF conditions. But for matching multiple criteria to arrive at a single result is a complex criterion-based calculation.read more and arrive at the desired solution.

In Excel, we have as many as 9 logical formulas. We must go to the “Formulas” tab and click on the “Logical” function group to see the logical formulas.

Logical Test

Some of them are frequently used formulas, and some of them are rarely used. This article will cover some of the important Excel logical formulas in real-time examples. All the Excel logical formulas work based on TRUE or FALSE if the logical test we do.

How to Use Logical Function in Excel?

Below are examples of logical functions in Excel.

You can download this Logical Functions Excel Template here – Logical Functions Excel Template

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#1 – AND & OR Logical Function in Excel

Excel AND and OR functions work opposite each other. For example, AND condition in Excel requires all the logical tests to be TRUE. On the other hand, the OR function requires any logical tests to be TRUE.

For example, look at the below examples.

Logical AND Example 1

We have student names, marks 1, and marks 2. If the student scored more than 35 in both exams, the result should be TRUE. If not, the result should be FALSE. Since we need to satisfy both the conditions, we need to use AND logical test here.

Example #1- AND Logical Function in Excel

  1. We must open AND function first.

    Logical AND Example 1-1

  2. The first logical 1 is Marks-1 is >35 or not to test the condition.

    Logical AND Example 1-2

  3. The second test is Marks-2 is >35 or not. So, we must take the logical test.

    Logical AND Example 1-3

  4. We have only two conditions to test. So, we have applied both the logical tests. Now close the bracket.

    If both conditions are satisfied, the formula returns TRUE by default. Else, returns FALSE as a result.

    Logical AND Example 1-4
    Drag the formula to the rest of the cells.
    Logical AND Example 1-5
    In cells D3 and D4, we got FALSE because in “Marks-1,” both the students scored less than 35.

    Logical AND Example 1-6

Example #2 – OR Logical Function in Excel

The Excel OR function is completely different from the AND function. The OR in ExcelOR In ExcelThe OR function in Excel is used to test various conditions, allowing you to compare two values or statements in Excel. If at least one of the arguments or conditions evaluates to TRUE, it will return TRUE. Similarly, if all of the arguments or conditions are FALSE, it will return FASLE.read more requires only one condition to be TRUE. Therefore, we must apply the same logical test to the above data with OR conditions.

Logical OR Example 1-7

We will have results in either FALSE or TRUE. Here, we got TRUE.

Logical OR Example 1-8

Drag the formula to other cells.

Logical OR Example 1-8

Now, look at the difference between AND and OR functions. The OR function returns TRUE for students B and C even though they have scored less than 35 in one of the exams. However, since they scored more than 35 in Marks 2, the OR function found the condition of >35 TRUE in 2 logical tests and returned TRUE as a result.

Logical IF Example 2-7

#2 – IF Logical Function in Excel

The IF excel FunctionIF Excel FunctionIF function in Excel evaluates whether a given condition is met and returns a value depending on whether the result is “true” or “false”. It is a conditional function of Excel, which returns the result based on the fulfillment or non-fulfillment of the given criteria. read more is one of the important logical functions to discuss in Excel. It includes three arguments to supply. Now, look at the syntax.

Logical IF Example 2
  • Logical Test: It is nothing but our conditional test.
  • Value if True: If the above logical test in Excel is TRUE, what should be the result.
  • Values if FALSE: If the above logical test in Excel is FALSE, what should be the result.

For example, take a look at the below data.

Logical IF Example 2

If the product’s price is more than 80, we need the result as “Costly.” On the other hand, if the product’s price is less than 80, we need the result as “OK.”

Step 1: Here, the logical test is whether the price is >80 or not. So, we must open the IF condition first.

Logical IF Example 2-1

Step 2: Now pass the logical test in Excel, Price >80.

Logical IF Example 2-2

Step 3: If the logical test in Excel is TRUE, we need the result as “Costly.” So in the next argument, VALUE, if TRUE, mentions the result in double-quotes as “Costly.”

Logical IF Example 2-3

Step 4: The final argument is if the logical test in Excel is FALSE. If the test is FALSE, we need the result to be “OK.”

Logical IF Example 2-4

We got the result of “Costly.”

Logical IF Example 2-5

Step 5: Drag the formula to other cells to have the result in all the cells.

Logical IF Example 2-6

Since the orange and sapota price is less than 80, we got the result as “OK.” However, the logical test in Excel is >80, so we got “Costly” for apples and grapes because their price is > 80.

Logical IF Example 2-7

#3 – IF with AND & OR Logical Functions in Excel

The IF function with the other two logical functions (AND & OR) is one of the best combination formulas in Excel. For better understanding, look at the below example data, which we have used for AND and OR conditions.

logical Test in excel Example 3

If the student scored more than 35 in both the exams, it would declare him a PASS or FAIL.

The AND function, by default, can only return TRUE or FALSE as a result. But here, we need the results as PASS or FAIL. So, we have to use the IF condition here.

Open the IF condition first.

logical Test in excel Example 3-1

If we can only test one condition simultaneously, we need to look at two conditions. So, we must open AND condition and pass the tests as Exam 1 >35 and Exam 2>35.

logical Test in excel Example 3-2

If both the supplied conditions are TRUE, we need the result as “PASS.” So mention the value “PASS” if the logical test in Excel is “TRUE.”

logical Test in excel Example 3-3

If the logical test in Excel is “FALSE,” the result should be “FAIL.”

logical Test in excel Example 3-4

So, here we got the result as “PASS.”

logical Test in excel Example 3-5

Drag the formula to other cells.

logical Test in excel 3-6

So, instead of default TRUE or FALSE, we got our values with the help of the IF condition. Similarly, we can also apply the OR function and replace the OR function with the IF and AND functions.

logical Test in excel Example 3-7

Things to Remember

This article is a guide to Logical Tests in Excel. We discuss logical functions like AND, OR, and IF in Excel, practical examples, and a downloadable template. You may also learn more about Excel from the following articles: –