Anti Dilutive Securities – The basic earnings per share of a company are always higher than the diluted earnings per share of the company. Let us have a look at the above snapshot of Colgate’s EPS. we note that diluted EPS is less than the basic EPS.
But what if because of a security, the diluted earnings per share is more than the earnings per share? How would we treat that security?
What are Anti Dilutive Securities
Anti Dilutive securities are those dilutive securities that that result in higher diluted earnings per share. In such case, we wouldn’t use that security in our calculation of the diluted earnings per share
Let’s take an example to illustrate how the anti-dilutive securities work and how to treat the anti-dilutive securities while calculating the diluted EPS.
Anti Dilutive Securities Example
Company R has issued a convertible bond of 250 at $200 par issued at par for the total of $50,000 with the yield of 15%. Company R has mentioned that each bond can be converted into 20 shares of common stock. The weighted average outstanding number of common shares is 16000. The net income of Company R for the year is $20,000 and the paid preferred dividends are $4000. The tax rate is 25%.
Find out the basic EPS and the diluted EPS. And compare the two.
In the above example, first, we will calculate the earnings per share for the Company R.
- Earnings per Share (EPS) = Net Income – Preferred Dividends / Weighted Average Number of Common Shares
- Or, Basic EPS = $20,000 – $4000 / 16000 = $16,000 / 16,000 = $1 per share.
To compute the diluted EPS, we need to calculate two things.
- First, we will calculate the number of common shares that would be converted from the convertible bonds. In this situation, for each of convertible bond, 40 common shares would be issued. If we convert all of the convertible bonds into common shares, we would get = (250 * 20) = 5,000 shares.
- Second, we need to find out the earnings from the convertible bonds as well. Here’s the earnings = 250 * $200 * 0.15 * (1 – 0.25) = $5625.
Now, we will calculate the diluted EPS of the Company R.
Diluted EPS = Net Income – Preferred Dividends + Earnings from the Convertible Bonds / Weighted Average Number of Common Shares + Converted Common Shares from Convertible Bonds
- Diluted EPS = $20,000 – $4,000 + $5625 / 16,000 + 5000
- Diluted EPS = $21,625 / 21,000 = $1.03 per share.
If by any chance, the fully diluted EPS is more than the basic EPS, then the security is anti-dilutive securities.
- In the above example, we saw that the convertible bonds are anti-dilutive securities because the basic EPS (i.e. $1 per share) is less than the dilutive EPS ($1.03 per share) when we take the convertible bonds into account.
When a company has anti dilutive security like the above example, it excludes the anti-dilutive securities from the calculation of diluted earnings per share.
How to check if Convertible Debt is an Anti Dilutive Security?
Before calculating diluted EPS, one needs to check if this security is anti-dilutive. To check whether the convertible debt is anti-dilutive, calculate
- If this ratio is less than basic EPS, convertible debt is dilutive security and should be included in the calculation of diluted EPS
- If this ratio is greater than the basic EPS, then the convertible debt is an anti dilutive security
How to check if Convertible Preferred stock is an Anti Dilutive Security?
To check whether the convertible preferred stock is anti-dilutive, calculate
- If this ratio is less than basic EPS, a convertible preferred stock is dilutive and should be included in the calculation of diluted EPS
- If this ratio is greater than the basic EPS, then the convertible preferred stock is an anti dilutive security
This has been a guide to what is anti dilutive securities. Here we discuss how convertible debt and preferred stock can become anti dilutive security with examples. You may also learn more about Corporate Finance from the following recommended articles –
- IFRS vs Indian GAAP
- Contingent Shares
- Basic EPS vs Diluted EPS
- Diluted EPS Formula
- Dividends per Share Formula