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Expenditure Approach for GDP

Updated on April 10, 2024
Article byWallstreetmojo Team
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

Expenditure Approach For GDP Definition

The expenditure approach is one of the approaches or methods of calculating the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country by way of adding the total spending of the economy, including the amount of consumption of goods and services by the consumer, amount of the expenditure on the investments, spending of the government of the country on the infrastructures and the net exports of the country.

Key Takeaways

  • The expenditure approach is a method used to calculate a country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by adding up the total economic spending.
  • The expenditure approach to GDP includes consumer spending on goods and services, gross investment spending for acquiring business capital goods used to produce goods and services, government spending on various public goods and services, and net exports.
  • The expenditure approach is one of the three methods used to calculate GDP, along with the production or value-added approach and the income approach.

Components of Expenditure Approach GDP

There are many ways to measure an economy’s Gross Domestic Product. One of those methods is to calculate the final expenditure. Therefore, this method has four components that essentially cover all of the spending: –

Therefore, almost all the expenditures may fall in any of the four categories mentioned above, and by adding all four types of spending, we may get the GDP numbers.

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Video Explanation of GDP vs GNP

Expenditure Approach GDP Formula

The formula for the calculation of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country using the Expenditure Approach is as follows: –

Expenditure Approach for GDP Formula = C + I + G + NX
Expenditure-Approach

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For eg:
Source: Expenditure Approach for GDP (wallstreetmojo.com)

Where,

GDP = Gross Domestic Product

Example of Expenditure Approach

One of the country’s economists wants to calculate the country’s Gross Domestic Product for his analysis. For this purpose, the economist decided to follow the expenditure approach. The following are details of the spending in the country: –

  • The amount of the expenditure on the consumption of goods and services by the consumer: $75,000
  • The total amount of the expenditure on the investments in the capital assets by the private sector and the government: $150,000
  • Spending of the government to boost the economy of the country: $180,000
  • Net exports of the country: $100,000

Using the Expenditure Approach calculates the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Solution:

The formula for the calculation of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country using the Expenditure Approach is as follows: –

GDP = C + I + G + NX

Expenditure Approach Example

Thus, using the Expenditure Approach, the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) comes to $505,000.

Advantages of the Expenditure Approach

  1. It is simple to understand, easy to calculate, and universally can compare figures with other nations.
  2. It does help the economist and the other persons concerned in formulating a general direction in which an economy EconomyAn economy comprises individuals, commercial entities, and the government involved in the production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of products and services in a society.read more may be heading.

Limitations/Disadvantages

The various limitations or disadvantages related to the Expenditure Approach are as follows:

  1. It forgoes certain aspects, like the quality of goods and services produced. Most of the time, black economy or underground economy data is not even considered for calculating such a figure.
  2. The community often argues about the quality and accuracy of the data collected and the method used.
  3. It does not account for those transactions which do not involve monetary quid pro quo.
  4. The sustainability of the environment and growth is also ignored while formulating such figures considering historical data.
  5. Inflation is also a major factor, and currency value in the international market is also a pivotal factor that it ignores.

Important Points

The various important points related to the expenditure approach are as follows:

Conclusion

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is included in the consumption component of the expenditure approach for GDP? 

The consumption component of the expenditure approach for GDP includes all the final goods and services purchased by households, such as food, clothing, housing, and healthcare. It also includes services like transportation, communication, and recreation.

2. What is included in the investment component of the expenditure approach for GDP? 

The investment component of the expenditure approach for GDP includes spending by businesses on equipment, structures, and software. It also includes spending by households on new housing and spending by governments on infrastructure.

3. What is included in the government spending component of the expenditure approach for GDP?

The government spending component of the expenditure approach for GDP includes all the final goods and services purchased by federal, state, and local governments, such as government employee salaries, defense spending, and social programs like Medicare and Medicaid.

This article is a guide to the Expenditure Approach and its definition. Here, we discussed the expenditure approach formula for calculating GDP with examples. You can learn more about Excel modeling from the following articles: –