Marking to Market

Marking to Market Meaning

Marking to Market (MTM) means valuing the security at the current trading price and therefore results in the daily settlement of profits and losses by the traders due to the changes in its market value.

  • If on a particular trading day, the value of the security rises, the trader taking a long position (buyer) will collect the money equal to the security’s change in value from the trader holding the short position (seller).
  • On the other hand, if the value of the security falls, the selling trader will collect money from the buyer. The money is equal to the change in the value of the security. It should be noted that the value at maturity does not change much. However, the parties involved in the contract pay gains and losses to each other at the end of every trading day.

Steps to Calculate Mark to Market in Futures

Steps of Marking to Market

You are free to use this image on your website, templates etc, Please provide us with an attribution linkHow to Provide Attribution?Article Link to be Hyperlinked
For eg:
Source: Marking to Market (wallstreetmojo.com)

Mark to market in futures involves below 2 steps:

  1. Determining Settlement Price

    Various assets will have different ways of determining the settlement price, but generally, it will involve averaging a few traded prices for the day. Within this, the last few transactions of the day are considered since it accounts for considerable activities of the day.
    The closing price is not considered as it can be manipulated by unscrupulous traders to drift the prices in a particular direction. The average price helps in reducing the probability of such manipulations.

  2. Realization of the Profit/Loss

    The realization of profit and loss depends on the average price taken for as the settlement price and pre-agreed upon contract price

Example of Marking to Market Calculations in Futures

Example #1

Let’s assume two parties are entering into a futures contract involving 30 bales of cotton at $150 per bale with a 6-month maturity. It takes the value of security to $4,500 [30*150]. At the end of the next trading day, the price per bale increased to $155. The trader in a long position will collect $150 from a trader in a short position [$155 – $150] * 30 bale for this particular day.

On the flip side, if the mark to the market price for every bale falls to $145, this difference of $150 would be collected by the trader in a short position from the trader in the long position for that particular day.

From the perspective of maintaining the books of accounts, all gains would be considered as ‘Other Comprehensive IncomeOther Comprehensive IncomeOther comprehensive income refers to income, expenses, revenue, or loss not being realized while preparing the company's financial statements during an accounting period. Thus, it is excluded and shown after the net income.read more’ under the Equity section of the Balance Sheet. On the assets side of the Balance sheet, the account of marketable securitiesMarketable SecuritiesMarketable securities are liquid assets that can be converted into cash quickly and are classified as current assets on a company's balance sheet. Commercial Paper, Treasury notes, and other money market instruments are included in it.read more will also increase by the same amount.

The losses will be recorded as ‘Unrealized Loss’ on the income statement. The marketable securities account would also decrease by that amount.

Marking to Market

You are free to use this image on your website, templates etc, Please provide us with an attribution linkHow to Provide Attribution?Article Link to be Hyperlinked
For eg:
Source: Marking to Market (wallstreetmojo.com)

Example #2

Let us consider an instance whereby a farmer growing apples is in anticipation of the prices of the commodity to rise. The farmer considers taking a long position in 20 apple contracts on July 21. Further assuming, each contract represents 100 bushels, the farmer is heading against a price rise of 2,000 bushels of apple [20*1,000].

Say, if the mark to the market price of one contract is $6.00 on July 21, the account of the farmer will be credited by $6.00 * 2,000 bushels = $12,000. Now depending on the change in price every day, the farmer would either make a gain or loss basis the initial amount of $12,000. The below table would be helpful.

(in $)

Day Future PriceChange in ValueGain/LossCumulative Gain/LossAccount Balance
16   12,000
26.150.1530030012,300
36.12-0.03-6024012,240
46.07-0.05-10014012,140
56.090.024018012,180
66.10.012020012,200

Whereby:

Change in value = Future Price of Current Day – Price as of Prior Day

Gain/loss = Change in Value * Total quantity involved [2,000 bushels in this case]

Cumulative Gain/Loss = Gain/Loss of the current day – Gain/Loss of Prior Day

Account Balance = Existing Balance +/- Cumulative Gain/Loss.

Since the farmer is holding a long position in the apple futures, any increase in the value of the contract would be a credit amount in their account.

Similarly, a decrease in the value will result in a debit. It can be observed that on Day 3, apple futures fell by $0.03 [$6.12 – $6.15], resulting in a loss of $0.03 * 2,000 = $60. While this amount is debited from the account of the farmer and the exact amount would be credited to the account of the trader on the other end. This person would be holding a short positionShort PositionA short position is a practice where the investors sell stocks that they don't own at the time of selling; the investors do so by borrowing the shares from some other investors to promise that the former will return the stocks to the latter on a later date.read more on wheat futures. This theory becomes a gain for one party and a loss for another.

Benefits of Marking to Market in Futures Contract

Drawbacks of Mark to Market in Futures

  • It requires continuous use of monitoring systems, which is very costly and can be afforded only by large institutions.
  • It can be a cause of concern during uncertainty as the value of assets can swing dramatically due to the unpredictable entry and exit of buyers and sellers.

Conclusion

The purpose of marking to market price is to ensure that all margin accounts are kept funded. If the mark to market price is lower than the purchase price, i.e., holder of a future is making a loss, the account has to be topped up with minimum/proportionate level. This amount is called the Variation margin. It also ensures that only genuine investors are participating in the overall activities.

If a holder makes a profit, credit has to be made in the margin account. The ultimate purpose is ensuring the exchange, which is bearing the risk of guaranteeing the trades are firmly protected.

It should also be noted that if the holder of futures makes a loss and is unable to top up the margin account, the exchange will “close the member out” by taking an offsetting contract. The quantum of loss is deducted from the client’s margin account balance, and balance payment is made out.

Recommended Articles

This article has been a guide to Marking to Market and its meaning. Here we discuss examples to calculate Mark to Market in Futures Contract along with its advantages, benefits, and drawbacks. You can learn more about Financing from the following articles –

Reader Interactions

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *