Amortization of Bond Premium

When there is the issue of the bonds to the investor with the coupon rate exceeding the rate of interest prevailing in the market then the investors may price the price more than that of the face value of bond, such excess premium received is amortized by the company over the bond term and the concept is known as the amortization of the Bond Premium.

What is the Amortization of Bond Premium?

Amortization of Bond Premium refers to the amortization of excess premium paid over and above the face value of the Bond. A bond has a stated coupon rate of interest, and it pays interest to the bond investors based on such a coupon rate of interest. It is valued at the present value of interest payments and face value determined based on the market interest rate. The investors pay more than the face value of the bonds when the stated interest rate (also called coupon rateCoupon RateThe coupon rate is the ROI (rate of interest) paid on the bond's face value by the bond's issuers. It determines the repayment amount made by GIS (guaranteed income security). Coupon Rate = Annualized Interest Payment / Par Value of Bond * 100%read more) exceeds the market interest rate.

Methods of Amortization of Bond Premium Calculation

You can download this Premium Bond Amortization Excel Template here – Premium Bond Amortization Excel Template

Premium Bond Amortization can be calculated based on two methods, namely,

Premium-Bond-Amortization

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#1 – Straight Line Method

Under the straight-line method, the bond premium is amortized equally in each period. It reduces the premium amount equally over the life of the bond. The formula for calculating the periodic amortization under the straight-line method is:

Bond Premium Amortized = Bond Premium / No. of Years
Example of Premium Bond Amortization

Let us consider if 1000 bonds are issued at a price of $ 22,916, having a face value of $20,000.

The Bond Premium will be

Premium Bond Amortization Example 1

Bond Premium = $2916000

Bond Premium Amortized calculation can be done using the above formula as,

Premium Bond Amortization Example 1.1png

=($22,916 – $ 20,000) X 1000

Bond Premium Amortized will be –

Example 1.2png

Bond Premium Amortized =$ 291,600

Therefore, the Bond Premium amortized will be $ 2,916,000/10 = $ 291,600

#2 – Effective Interest Rate Method

Under the Effective Interest Rate Method, amortization is done by reducing the balance in the premium on bonds payableBonds PayableBonds payable are the company's long-term debt with the promise to pay the interest due and principal at the specified time as decided between the parties. A bond payable account is credited in the books of accounts with the corresponding debit to the cash account on the issue date.read more account by the difference between two terms or periods. Under this method, the bond premium to be amortized periodically is calculated by using the following formula:

Bond Premium Amortized= P x R – N x Y

Where,

  • P = Bond issue price,
  • R = Market Rate of interest,
  • N = Nominal or face value and,
  • Y = coupon rate of interest/ Yield

Example of Premium Bond Amortization

Let us consider an investor that purchased a bond for $20,500. The maturity period of the bond is 10 years, and the face value is $20,000. The coupon rate of interest is 10% and has a market rate of interest at the rate of 8%.

Let us calculate the amortization for the first, second, and third period based on the figures given above:

Example 2

For the remaining 7 periods, we can use the same structure presented above to calculate the amortizable bond premium. It can be clearly seen from the above example that a bond purchased at a premium has a negative accrual, or in other words, the basis of the bond amortizes.

The accounting treatment for Interest paid and bond premium amortized will remain the same, irrespective of the method used for amortization.

The journal entry for interest payment and bond premium amortized will be:

Example 2.1png

Advantages and Limitations

The primary advantage of premium bond amortization is that it is a tax deduction in the current tax year. If the interest paid on the bond is taxable, the premium paid on the bond can be amortized, or in other words, a part of the premium can be utilized towards reducing the amount of taxable income. Also, it leads to the reduction of the cost basis of the taxable bond for premium amortized in each period.

However, in the case of tax-exempt bonds, the amortized premium is not deductible while determining the taxable incomeDetermining The Taxable IncomeThe taxable income formula calculates the total income taxable under the income tax. It differs based on whether you are calculating the taxable income for an individual or a business corporation.read more. But the bond premium has to be amortized for each period, a reduction of cost basis in the bond is necessary each year.

Conclusion

For a Bond investor, the premium paid for a bond represents part of the cost basis of the bond, for tax purposes. Premium amortized every year can be used to adjust or reduce tax liability created by interest incomeInterest IncomeInterest Income is the amount of revenue generated by interest-yielding investments like certificates of deposit, savings accounts, or other investments & it is reported in the Company’s income statement. read more generated from such bonds.

Calculation of Bond Premium amortized can be done by any of the two methods mentioned above, depending on the type of bonds. Both bond amortization methods give the same final results. However, the difference arises in the pace of interest expenses. Straight Line method of amortizationStraight Line Method Of AmortizationStraight-line amortization amortizes the cost of intangible assets or allocates the interest expenses associated with the bond's issue in each accounting period until the end of the intangible asset or maturity of bond respectively in the income statement.read more gives the same interest expenses in each period.

An effective Interest rate method of amortization, on the other hand, gives decreasing interest expenses over time for premium bondsPremium BondsA premium bond refers to a financial instrument that trades in the secondary market at a price exceeding its face value. This occurs when a bond’s coupon rate surpasses its prevailing market rate of interest. For instance, a bond with a face value (par value) of $750, trading at $780, will reflect that the bond is trading at a premium of $30 ($780-750). read more. In simple words, expenses decrease with a decrease in book value under the Effective Interest rate method. This logic seems very practical, but the straight-line method is easier to calculate. If the primary consideration is to defer current income, Effective Interest rate method should be chosen for the amortization of premium on bonds. The Straight Method is preferable when the amount of premium is very less or insignificant.

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