VBA Functions

Excel VBA Functions

We have seen that we can use the worksheet functions in VBA, i.e. the functions of excel worksheet in VBA coding using application.worksheet method, but how do we use a function of VBA in excel, well such functions are called user-defined functions, when a user creates a function in VBA it can be also used in excel worksheet.

Although we have many functions in excel to manipulate the data, sometimes we need to have some customization in the tools so that we can save our time as we do some tasks repeatedly. We have predefined functions in excel like SUM, COUNTIF, SUMIF, COUNTIFS,”COUNTIFS,””COUNTIFSread more VLOOKUP, INDEX, MATCH in excel, etc. but we do some tasks on a daily basis for which a single command or function is not available in Excel, then by using VBA, we can create the custom function which is called User Defined Functions (UDFUDFUser Defined Function in VBA is a group of customized commands created to give out a certain result. It is a flexibility given to a user to design functions similar to those already provided in Excel.read more).

VBA Functions

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What do VBA Functions do?

  • They carry out certain calculations; and
  • Return a value

In VBA, while defining the function, we use the following syntax to specify the parameters and their data type.

Data type here is the type of data the variable will hold. It can hold any value (any data type or object of any class).

Marks as Integer

We can connect the object with its property or method by using the period or dot (.) symbol.

How to Create Custom Functions using VBA?

You can download this VBA Function Excel Template here – VBA Function Excel Template

Example

Suppose we have the following data from a school where we need to find the total marks scored by the student, result, and grade.

VBA Function Example 1

As to sum up the marks scored by an individual student in all subjects, we have an inbuilt function, i.e., SUM, but to find out the grade and result based on the criteria set out by the school is not available in the Excel by default.

This is the reason why we need to create user-defined functions.

Step 1: Find Total Marks

First, we will find the total marks using the SUM function in excel.

VBA Function Example 1-1

Press Enter to get the result.

VBA Function Example 1-2

Drag the Formula to the rest of the cells.

VBA Function Example 1-3

Now to find out the Result (Passed, Failed, or Essential Repeat), the criteria set by the school is that.

  • If the student has scored more than or equal to 200 as total marks out of 500 and the student is also not failed in any subject (has scored more than 32 in each subject), then a student is passed,
  • If the student has scored more than or equal to 200, but the student is failed in 1 or 2 subjects, then a student has got “Essential Repeat” in those subjects,
  • If the student has scored either less than 200 or fails in 3 or more subjects, then the student is failed.
Step 2: Create ResultOfStudent Function

To create a function named ‘ResultOfStudent,’ we need to open “Visual Basic Editor” by using any of the methods below:

VBA Function Example 1-4

If the Developer tab is not available in the MS Excel, then we can get that by using the following steps:

  • Right-click anywhere on the ribbon then, Choose the Customize the Ribbon in excel.
VBA Function Example 1-5

When we choose this command, the “Excel Options” dialog box opens.

  • We need to check the box for “Developer” to get the tab.
VBA Function Example 1-6
  • By using the shortcut key, i.e., Alt+F11.
VBA Function Shortcut Key
VBA Function Example 1-7
  • We need to paste the following code into the module.
Function ResultOfStudents(Marks As Range) As String

Dim mycell As Range
Dim Total As Integer
Dim CountOfFailedSubject As Integer

For Each mycell In Marks
Total = Total + mycell.Value

If mycell.Value < 33 Then
CountOfFailedSubject = CountOfFailedSubject + 1
End If

Next mycell
If Total >= 200 And CountOfFailedSubject <= 2 And CountOfFailedSubject > 0 Then
ResultOfStudents = "Essential Repeat"

ElseIf Total >= 200 And CountOfFailedSubject = 0 Then
ResultOfStudents = "Passed"

Else
ResultOfStudents = "Failed"
End If

End Function
VBA Function Example 1-8

The above function returns the result for a student.

We need to understand how this code is working.

The first statement, ‘Function ResultOfStudents(Marks As Range) As String,’ declares a function named ‘ResultOfStudents’ that will accept a range as input for marks and will return the result as a string.

Dim mycell As Range
Dim Total As Integer
Dim CountOfFailedSubject As Integer

These three statements declare variables, i.e.,

  • ‘myCell’ as a Range,
  • ‘Total’ as Integer (to store total marks scored by a student),
  • ‘CountOfFailedSubject’ as integer (to store the number of subjects in which a student has failed).
For Each mycell In Marks
Total = Total + mycell.Value

If mycell.Value < 33 Then
CountOfFailedSubject = CountOfFailedSubject + 1
End If

Next mycell

This code checks for every cell in the ‘Marks’ range and adds the value of every cell in the ‘Total’ variable, and if the value of the cell is less than 33, then adds 1 to the ‘CountOfFailedSubject’ variable.

If Total >= 200 And CountOfFailedSubject <= 2 And CountOfFailedSubject > 0 Then
ResultOfStudents = "Essential Repeat"

ElseIf Total >= 200 And CountOfFailedSubject = 0 Then
ResultOfStudents = "Passed"

Else
ResultOfStudents = "Failed"
End If

This code checks the value of ‘Total’ and ‘CountOfFailedSubject’ and passes the Essential Report,’ ‘Passed,’ or ‘Failed’ accordingly to the ‘ResultOfStudents.’

Step 3: Apply ResultOfStudents Function to Get Result

ResultOfStudents function takes marks, i.e., selection of 5 marks scored by the student.

VBA Function Example 1-10

Now Select the Range of cells, i.e., B2: F2.

Example 1-11

Drag the Formula to the rest of the Cells.

Example 1-13
Step 4: Create ‘GradeForStudent’ Function to get Grades

Now to find out the grade for the student, we will create one more function named ‘GradeForStudent.’

The code would be:

Function GradeForStudent(TotalMarks As Integer, Result As String) As String

If TotalMarks > 440 And TotalMarks <= 500 And ((Result = "Passed" Or Result = "Essential Repeat") 
Or Result = "Essential Repeat") Then GradeForStudent = "A"

ElseIf TotalMarks > 380 And TotalMarks <= 440 And (Result = "Passed" Or Result = "Essential Repeat") Then
GradeForStudent = "B"

ElseIf TotalMarks > 320 And TotalMarks <= 380 And (Result = "Passed" Or Result = "Essential Repeat") Then
GradeForStudent = "C"

ElseIf TotalMarks > 260 And TotalMarks <= 320 And (Result = "Passed" Or Result = "Essential Repeat") Then
GradeForStudent = "D"

ElseIf TotalMarks >= 200 And TotalMarks <= 260 And (Result = "Passed" Or Result = "Essential Repeat") Then
GradeForStudent = "E"

ElseIf TotalMarks < 200 Or Result = "Failed" Then
GradeForStudent = "F"

End If

End Function

This function assigns a ‘Grade’ to the student based on the ‘Total Marks’ and ‘Result.’

VBA Function Example 1-9

We just need to write the formula and open the brackets in Cell H2 and pressing Ctrl+Shift+A to find out about the arguments.

VBA Function Shortcut arguments

The GradeForStudent function takes Total marks (sum of marks) and the result of the student as an argument to calculate the grade.

Example 1-14

Now Select the respective cells, i.e., G2, H2.

Example 1-15

Now we just need to press Ctrl+D after selecting the cells to copy down the formulas.

Example 1-16

We can highlight the values of less than 33 with the red background color so that we find out the subjects in which student is failed.

Example 1-17

Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to VBA Functions. Here we discuss how to create custom functions using VBA code along with practical examples and a downloadable excel template. You may learn more about VBA from the following articles –

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