Gold Reserve

Updated on March 26, 2024
Article byKhalid Ahmed
Edited byAlfina
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

What Is Gold Reserve?

A Gold Reserve refers to the bullion a nation’s central bank holds. During the gold standard era, it served as a support or store of value for the national currency and a guarantee to redeem promises to pay noteholders, depositors, or trading peers.

Gold Reserve

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A currency or bond issued by a country derives its creditworthiness from its gold reserves. It helps in settling international debts and hedging against currency fluctuations and inflation. The Exchange Stabilization Fund was established by the Gold Reserve Act of 1934 to counter chaotic markets and promote exchange rate stability. 

Key Takeaways

  • The gold reserve of the nation is the amount of bullion held by its central bank to support national currency valuation and to ensure promise redemption for tasks during the gold standard era.
  • The top countries with maximum reserves are – the United States of America, Germany, Italy, France, Russia, the People’s Republic of China, Switzerland, Japan, India, Netherlands, Turkey, Taiwan, Kazakhstan, Portugal, Uzbekistan, & Saudi Arabia.
  • It impacted currencies by stabilizing them till 1970. US dollar gold inverse relationship, inflation & recession triggering gold investment impacted monetary and economic policies.

Gold Reserve Explained

Gold reserve means the holding of gold reserves by many central banks of countries as financial assets to ensure that they can complete the task they have embarked upon. According to the World Gold Council, all the gold that has ever been mined and accounted for till 2019 is 212,582 tons. Under the gold standard regime, the currency of every country was fixed at a particular quantity of gold. Although its use as a benchmark of currency evaluation was renounced long ago, it still can impact currencies’ value globally.

Countries worldwide acquire these reserves through mining, historical contracts, and purchases. International market prices influence the value of these reserves. Hence, the central bank acts responsibly to manage gold reserves for the equilibrium of economic stability, inflation concerns, and currency value. Gold has been transformed into a valuable commodity on exchanges globally that can replace currency and act as its substitute.

Any increase in gold price can lead to a trade surplus or may aid in offsetting a trade deficit. Also, during economic upheaval, it becomes a haven for investors. It has been abandoned, and its place is taken by fiat money worldwide.

Nevertheless, the stability and size of a country’s gold reserves might affect its capacity to thwart economic crises and the currency’s strength. 

Furthermore, it also denotes a nation’s standing in the internal financial scenario, where any change in these reserve holdings signals shifts in economic priorities and affects financial markets


Initially, kings and governments accumulated gold reserves for paying salaries, war costs, expeditions, and all welfare administrative works. The United States policy focused on depositing and holding as much gold as possible as treasure. Then, banks started collecting gold to pay depositors in gold. After that, in the 19th century, commercial banks became the principal holders of reserves of gold coins to fulfill redemption demand instead of the government. 

Gradually, central banks acquired all the gold reserves from commercial banks, individuals, and markets. As a result, commercial banks came to rely on central banks for their gold needs. However, in the 1930s, many nations instructed their central banks to hand over all their reserves to government treasuries like the US Treasury, placing their gold at Fort Knox. Currently, gold reserves are being used for international transactions in rare cases. 


Let us understand the topic using a few examples. 

Example #1

Saudia Arabia has discovered huge gold reserves in the Makkah region, as per an online article published on January 8, 2024. The Saudi Arabian mining company (Maaden) discovered the massive gold reserve, including high-grade deposits – 20.6 g/t and 10.4 g/t in samples collected from two locations of de-drilling near the area of Mansourah Massarah. 

It has helped to catapult the country’s reserves to 323 tons in 2023, taking it to 16th place in these reserves globally. As a result, the CEO of Maaden has taken it as a vital element in Saudi Arabia’s 2030 vision for economic growth.

Example #2

Let us imagine the place Goldana, in Latin America, having a beautiful landscape. Scientists learned of a vast gold reserve within its mountainous terrain during mineral exploration. Scientists have assumed that there are 10 million ounces of gold in them. Hence, the local government decided to mine the gold from 2025 for business purposes. 

It has the power to transform the lives of the people in Goldana through its new job opportunities and making it a central hub for gold extraction. As a result, it changed the future of the locals forever and made it shine on the global gold map. Now, it is expected to become the richest region in the world.

Gold Reserve By Countries

Let us delve into the data of countries with the most gold reserves in the world as per the table, which shows the top 20 countries:

#CountryGold Reserves
1United States of America8,133.47 t
2Germany3,355.14 t
3Italy2,451.84 t
4France2,436.5 t
5Russia2,298.53 t
6People’s Republic of China1,948.31 t
7Switzerland1,040 t
8Japan845.97 t
9India768.8 t
10Netherlands612.45 t
11Turkey457.7 t
12Taiwan423.63 t
13Kazakhstan383.91 t
14Portugal382.57 t
15Uzbekistan363.91 t
16Saudi Arabia323.07 t
17United Kingdom310.29 t
18Lebanon286.83 t
19Spain281.58 t
20Austria279.99 t

How Does Gold Reserve Affect Currencies?

Until 1970, gold was taken as the standard for currency valuation and affected currencies in the following manner:

  • Until the 1970s, it linked gold value directly with the currency, playing a critical role in its global stability, worth, and trust.
  • The Bretton Wood Agreement in 1944, post-World War II, valued currencies against gold, transforming the dollar as a reserve currency. But since the dollar got overvalued, the agreement and the gold standard were ended.
  • The US dollar and gold are vital due to their inverse relationship. It means that a strong dollar weakens gold prices, leading to the selling of gold and vice versa when investors start buying gold when the dollar weakens.
  • During inflation, loss of value of fiat currency occurs, thereby increasing the price of gold and triggering investment in gold to safeguard investments.
  • Even during the economic recession, gold acts as a hedge offering a safe store of value.
  • A gold market thrives during- a weakened global economy and economic uncertainties like interest rate cuts.
  • When gold prices rise, then gold importing countries experience currency depreciation.
  • Stronger currencies are experienced by nations having these reserves during gold price increases, leading to trade surpluses.
  • Gold price movements affect countries having a system of fixed float currencies directly.
  • Gold shapes the monetary policies of nations with reserves, as when their central banks purchase gold, then, it affects the demand and supply of currency, leading to inflation.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is the purpose of gold reserves?

Gold serves as an excellent reserve material because of its property of liquidity. It acts as a safety cushion for the national currency, supporting the economy and offering financial stability during the time of crisis.

Why do countries have gold reserves?

It is because it has been an integral part of financial transactions and reserves of nations. Central banks hold vast reserves of gold because it diversifies their reserves, adds trust to a nation, and hedges against any inflation or recession.

Where is Fort Knox gold reserve?

It is a fortified vault building run by the United States Department of the Treasury located at the United States Bullion Depository in Fort Knox, Kentucky, containing the majority of the U.S. reserves.

When did the Gold Reserve Act end?

The Golden Reserve Act of 1934 made it mandatory for all gold and gold certificates with the Federal Reserve to be deposited or surrendered and vested in the US treasury. As a result of this Act, the hegemony of the gold standard used as a currency standard in the USA ended. President D. Roosevelt put the law into action by signing it off on January 30, 1934.

This article has been a guide to what is Gold Reserve. We provide a list of the top 20 countries and explain its history, examples, and effects on currencies. You may also find some useful articles here –

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