Bermuda Options

Updated on January 3, 2024
Article byWallstreetmojo Team
Edited byAshish Kumar Srivastav
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

What is Bermuda Options?

Bermuda Option refers to those options which can be exercised on fixed dates (which are predetermined in advance) after the completion of the lock-in period. In other words, it gives the holder of the option the right to exercise on a specific set of dates during the life of the option.

Bermuda Options

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Bermuda Option is a blend of the two other popular exotic optionsExotic OptionsExotic options, as the name suggests, are more complex variations of the simple vanilla options, in terms of trigger points, payoff determination, expiry, underlying assets and other such features. They are designed to suit to the needs of the partaking investors and therefore sell through the Over-the-Counter (OTC) more, namely the American optionAmerican OptionAn American option is a type of options contract (call or put) that can be exercised at any time at the holder's will of the opportunity before the expiration date. It allows the option holder to reap benefits from the security or stock at any time when the safety or supply is favorable. A European option is the exact opposite of an American option wherein the option holder cannot sell the option until the day of expiration, even when it is favorable. In addition, there is no geographical connection concerning the names since it only refers to the execution of the options more and European optionEuropean OptionA European option can be defined as a type of options contract (call or put option) that restricts its execution until the expiration date. In layman's terms, once an investor has purchased a European option, even if the underlying security's price moves in a favourable direction, the investor cannot take advantage by exercising the option more, and it got its name from the place Bermuda, which lies between these two places. It is also called the Mid-Atlantic Option. Thus the exercise date for such an option is restricted to certain dates, unlike American options, which can be exercised anytime, or European Option, which can be exercised only on the maturity of the option. Due to these inherent features, these options are usually priced more compared to European Option and Less compared to the American option.

Key Takeaways

  • Bermuda Options are financial derivatives granting the holder the right to buy or sell an underlying asset at predetermined prices within a specified period, including specific exercise dates.
  • Unlike European options, Bermuda Options allow exercise at specific intervals, providing greater flexibility to benefit from favorable price movements.
  • Bermuda Options are suitable when the underlying asset’s value fluctuates, allowing strategic exercise based on market conditions.
  • Pricing Bermuda Options is more intricate due to multiple exercise dates, requiring advanced models like the Binomial Model or Monte Carlo simulation to determine their value while considering potential exercise decisions.
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Examples of Bermuda Option

ABC limited purchased shares of Reliance Industries Limited @ $1000 per share on 01.01.2019. The company bought 20000 shares, amounting to 20 million dollars. To protect itself from any downside, ABC Limited decided to purchase Bermuda Option with an Exercise Price of $980 with a six-month expiry ending on 30.06.2019 and the option to exercise on the first date of every month for $10 per share option.

Details are as follows:

Bermuda Option Example

The option allows ABC Limited multiple benefits, namely:

Thus if the price falls below $980, ABC Limited can sell the stock on the pre-specified dates and protect itself from the further downside.

Comparison between Bermuda Option vs. American Option

ParticularsBermuda OptionAmerican Option
DefinitionBermuda Options are those option which can be exercised on specified dates as well as on Expiry period.American Options can be exercised anytime on or before the Expiry period.
Customized/StandardThey are customized and bilaterally traded.American Options are standardized and traded on recognized exchange platforms.
Premium CostThey are always less compared to American Options.Always more than Bermuda Option.
Exercise FreedomIt can be exercised on expiry or certain specified dates.It can be exercised anytime on or before expiry.



  • It cannot be exercised at any time like American options and exercisable only on specified dates, which are predetermined.
  • These options are expensive compared to European Options, and the buyer is better off opting for European Option if the intention is to exercise only on the expiry of the option.
  • It can be exercised only on specific dates, which may not be the best days to exercise the option.
  • It offers writers of such options to exercise more control over when the option can be exercised rather than on the option buyer.
  • It requires the use of complex option pricing models and can’t be undertaken using the standard Black Scholes Option pricing model.

Important Points to Remember

Bermuda Options acts as a mixture of American and European Options; however, what makes them more relevant and useful is that they provide specific dates on which they can be exercised before expiry and are less costly compared to American Options, which allow exercising any time on or before expiry. Thus if a trader expects movement in the underlying assetUnderlying AssetUnderlying assets are the actual financial assets on which the financial derivatives rely. Thus, any change in the value of a derivative reflects the price fluctuation of its underlying asset. Such assets comprise stocks, commodities, market indices, bonds, currencies and interest more over a specified period/dates only due to any external event or event associated with the underlying asset, he/she can generate a better cost-effective return by opting for a Bermuda Option than an American option.

For instance, Traders betting on prices of Crude Oil can opt for Bermuda Option when OPEC (Oil producing and Exporting countries) meet ( which directly impacts the prices of Crude Oil) coincides with the specific dates as that can safeguard the cost rather than opting for an American option, thereby gaining from the hybrid model.


Bermuda Option is mostly Over the Counter Traded options and is often used as a hedging instrument for interest rate contracts and foreign exchange contracts. It offers more flexibility compared to European options. Such options are also used for specific situations or event-specific purposes. The writer of such options makes use of extensive quantitative techniques and sophisticated option Pricing Models to price these complex derivative instruments. These exotic options offer more flexibility compared to a European Option at the expense of additional premium and less exercising opportunities compared to the American option by being less expensive compared to American Options.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is Bermuda option vs. Bermuda swaption?

A Bermuda option is an option contract that can only be exercised on specific dates, providing more flexibility than European options but less flexibility than American options. At the same time, a Bermuda swaption is an option on an interest rate swap with exercise dates occurring during a specified period, offering the right to enter into an interest rate swap at those specific dates.

2. What are the risks associated with Bermuda options?

Risks associated with Bermuda options include market price volatility, uncertain exercise dates that may result in missed opportunities for exercising the option, and potential timing mismatches between option exercise and market conditions.

3. How does including a Bermuda option affect a portfolio’s risk profile?

The inclusion of a Bermuda option in a portfolio can impact risk by introducing additional sources of uncertainty, potentially increasing both volatility and complexity, which should be carefully considered and managed to align with the investor’s risk tolerance and investment objectives.

Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to Bermuda’s options and its definition. Here we discuss an example and its comparison with the American option along with advantages and disadvantages. You can learn more about financing from the following articles –

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