Full Form of SENSEX – Stock Exchange Sensitive Index
The full form of SENSEX stands for Stock Exchange Sensitive Index. It can be defined as an index, which also means indicator, and it provides a general idea with respect to the movement of the maximum number of stocks that is, if they have gone up or down or in other words, it can also be understood as the index or indicator of all the companies listed on the Bombay stock exchange.
List of Companies Included in SENSEX
It can be defined as the weighted index of thirty companies. These thirty companies are chosen based on factors like overall financial well being and performance. Following are the names of the thirty companies that are included-
- Tata Steel Limited
- Wipro Limited
- Tata Motors Limited
- State Bank of India
- Sun Pharmaceutical Industry Limited
- Tata Motors- DVR Ordinary
- Tata Consultancy Services Limited
- Kotak Mahindra Bank Limited
- Mahindra and Mahindra Limited
- Maruti Suzuki India Limited
- Larsen and Toubro Limited
- Reliance Industries Limited
- NTPC Limited
- Power Grid Corporation of India Limited
- Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited
- ITC Limited
- Infosys Limited
- ICICI Bank Limited
- HDFC Bank Limited
- Hindustan Unilever Limited
- Hero MotorCorp Limited
- Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited
- Asian Paints Limited
- Bajaj Auto Limited
- Axis Bank Limited
- Bharti Airtel Limited
- Adani Ports and Special Economic Zone Limited
- Coal India Limited
- Reddys Laboratories Limited
It offers a broader view of the performance of stocks enlisted on the Bombay Stock Exchange. SENSEX is used to measure the ability of a particular stock to induce movements in an index. It is also used to evaluate and indicate the financial strength of the stock marketStock MarketStock Market works on the basic principle of matching supply and demand through an auction process where investors are willing to pay a certain amount for an asset, and they are willing to sell off something they have at a specific price..
The primary purpose is it indicates the movement in the market. Stock Exchange Sensitive Index helps in the measurement of the performances of the trending top thirty stocks in the country based on liquidity and market cap.
How does it Work?
At SENSEX, all differential voting right sharesVoting Right SharesVoting Shares are the shares that authorize the shareholder to vote on Company issues like modifying its corporate policies or selecting Board of Directors etc. and common stocks that form a part of S&P BSE 100 qualifies for index inclusion. It offers the time series of data over a longer duration of time. The closing figure is calculated with the help of a weighted average with respect to all the trades on the Stock Exchange Sensitive Index constituents in the final fifteen minutes of a trading session.
If the Stock Exchange Sensitive Index constituent is not traded in the final fifteen minutes, then the last price that has been traded is considered for calculation of the closure of the index. And if the same is not traded for the entire day, then the closing price for the last day is considered for calculating the index closure.
How is it Calculated?
- Stock Exchange Sensitive Index can be measured by calculating the performance of the trending 30 stocks. It is now calculated by taking the free-float market capitalization method into use.
- However, the earlier full market capitalization method was used for the calculation. From 1st September 2003, the use of the free-float market capitalizationFree-float Market CapitalizationFree Float Market Capitalization is a method by which the market cap of an index’s underlying are calculated. It is calculated by multiplying the price with the number of outstanding shares available for investors and traders. method came into existence. The free-float market capitalization method is globally accepted and acknowledged, and it is also regarded as the industry’s best practice.
- The free-float market capitalization method, market capitalization weighting scheme method, and the divisor method are used for the calculation of the SENSEX with respect to the top thirty stocks. The market capitalization weighting method is used to evaluate the market capitalization of an entity by taking the price of its stock and multiplying the same with the total number of shares that are issuedShares That Are IssuedShares Issued refers to the number of shares distributed by a company to its shareholders, who range from the general public and insiders to institutional investors. They are recorded as owner's equity on the Company's balance sheet. by that particular entity.
- The market capitalization evaluated will be taken into use for further multiplication where it will be multiplied with the free-float factor to ascertain the free-float market capitalization. Stock Exchange Sensitive Index can be calculated by taking the free-float market capitalization of the top 30 companies that are ranked in the index and dividing the same using a number known as the index divisor.
- The index divisor helps in keeping the index comparable over a period of time. Therefore, it acts as an adjustment point for every index adjustment that arises out of scripts replacement, corporate actions, etc..
Following are the benefits-
- Better Visibility– SENSEX provides better visibility and enhances the credibility of a company. It increases the demand for the company’s shares as well as leverage the valuation of the same.
- Enhanced Prestige– It even enhances the prestige of the companies since it incorporates the top best-performing companies, which itself is a matter of prestige for them.
- Easy Access to Capital– It allows a company to raise its share capitalShare CapitalShare capital refers to the funds raised by an organization by issuing the company's initial public offerings, common shares or preference stocks to the public. It appears as the owner's or shareholders' equity on the corporate balance sheet's liability side..
- Encourages SMEs Growth– SENSEX offers opportunities with respect to growth like mergers, acquisitions, and expansions.
- Enhances the Liquidity of Equity Holders– It also enhances the liquidity of the shareholders and even offers them various growth opportunities such as mergersMergersA merger is a voluntary fusion of two existing entities equal in size, operations, and customers deciding to amalgamate to form a new entity, expand its reach into new territories, lower operational costs, increase revenues, and earn greater control over market share., acquisitionsAcquisitionsAn acquisition is defined as the act of taking over or gaining control of all or most of another entity's stocks by purchasing at least fifty percent of the target company's stock and other corporate assets. , and expansions.
- It offers various other benefits too, such as scope for employee incentives and efficiency in risk distribution.
Stock Exchange Sensitive Index initially complied in the year 1986, and it is the country’s oldest stock market index. It acts as the pulse of the national stock markets. The calculation happens primarily by using the full market capitalization method.
From 1st September 2003, the calculation of SENSEX is done with the help of the free-float market capitalization method instead of the full market capitalization method. The free-float market capitalization method is considered as the best method of all, and this method is based on the fact that the level of indexes at all points reflects the free-float market values of thirty component stocks that are related to a base period.
Stock Exchange Sensitive Index is widely used in not just national markets but international markets too. Investors all over the world follow the Stock Exchange Sensitive Index closely to use it as a base for constructing investment related decisions.
This article has been a guide to the Full Form of SENSEX and its definition. Here we learn the purpose, companies included, and working of stock exchange sensitive index along with benefits. You may refer to the following articles to learn more about finance –