What is Market Risk?
Market risk is the risk that an investor faces due to the decrease in the market value of a financial product arising out of the factors that affect the whole market and is not limited to a particular economic commodity. Often called systematic risk, the market risk arises because of uncertainties in the economy, political environment, natural or human-made disasters, or recession. It can only be hedged, however, cannot eliminate by diversification.
Types of Market Risk
There are four significant types of market risk.
#1 – Interest Rate Risk
Interest rate riskInterest Rate RiskThe risk of an asset's value changing due to interest rate volatility is known as interest rate risk. It either makes the security non-competitive or makes it more valuable. arises when the value of security might fall because of the increase and a decrease in the prevailing and long-term interest rates. It is a broader term and comprises multiple components like basis risk, yield curve risk, options risk, and repricing risk.
#2 – Foreign Exchange Risk
Foreign exchange risk arises because of the fluctuations in the exchange rates between the domestic currency and the foreign currency. The most affected by this risk is the MNCs that operate across geographies and have their payments in different currencies.
#3 – Commodity Price Risk
Like foreign exchange riskForeign Exchange RiskForeign exchange risk is an unfavourable change in the settlement value of a transaction entered in a currency other than the base currency (domestic currency), also referred to as currency risk or exchange rate risk., commodity price risk arises because of fluctuations in commodities like crude, gold, silver, etc. However, unlike foreign exchange risk, commodity risks affect not only the multinational companies but also ordinary people like farmers, small business enterprises, commercial traders, exporters, and governments.
#4 – Equity Price Risk
The last component of market risk is the equity price risk, which refers to the change in the stock prices in the financial products. As equity is most sensitive to any change in the economy, equity price risk is one of the most significant parts of the market risk.
Market Risk Premium Formula
One factor used to calculate the gauge market risk is the calculation of market risk premiumMarket Risk PremiumThe market risk premium is the supplementary return on the portfolio because of the additional risk involved in the portfolio; essentially, the market risk premium is the premium return investors should have to make sure to invest in stock instead of risk-free securities.. Put market risk premium is the difference between the expected rate of return and the prevailing risk-free rate of return.
Mathematically market risk premium formulaMarket Risk Premium FormulaMarket risk premium refers to the extra return expected by an investor for holding a risky market portfolio instead of risk-free assets. Market risk premium = expected rate of return – risk free rate of return is as follows:
The market risk premium has two significant aspects–required marked risk premium and historical premium. It is based on the expectations that the investor community has in the future or based on historical patterns.
The risk-free rateRisk-free RateA risk-free rate is the minimum rate of return expected on investment with zero risks by the investor. It is the government bonds of well-developed countries, either US treasury bonds or German government bonds. Although, it does not exist because every investment has a certain amount of risk. is defined as the expected return without taking any risk. Most often US treasury rate as US sovereign riskSovereign RiskSovereign Risk, also known as Country Risk, is the risk of a country defaulting on its debt obligations. It is the broadest measure of credit risk and includes country risk, political risk, and transfer risk. is almost zero is referred to as risk-free rate.
Example of Market Risk
Let’s take an example.
Let’s consider the example of an IT major firm–HP. An investor wants to calculate the market risk premium associated with the stock price, currently quoting at $1000. Let’s assume the investor expects the stock price to be hot $1100 because of expected growth. The following is the calculation in Excel.
Calculation of Risk Premium will be –
Market Risk Premium = 11%
Some advantages are as follows.
- Most often than not, financial products are sold to the investor community by aggressive marketing and by presenting only the growth part while completely ignoring the risks and downfalls. This is why we see such products being bought more in the economic expansion cycles while in the recession, investors, especially the retail ones, are trapped. Had the investor known of the concept of market risk and its calculations, they can understand the financial products in a much better way and decide if it suits them for such volatilities.
- The market risk premium, as explained in the example above, helps an investor to calculate the real rate of returnReal Rate Of ReturnThe real rate of return is the actual annual rate of return after taking into consideration the factors that affect the rate like inflation. It is calculated by one plus nominal rate divided by one plus inflation rate minus one. The inflation rate can be taken from consumer price index or GDP deflator.. Even though the financial product might enjoy presenting a lucrative return, the investor should gauge the investment in terms of the actual rate it provides. This can be calculated by taking into account the prevailing risk-free interest rate and inflation rate.
Some disadvantages are as follows.
- We cannot completely ignore them. It can only be hedged, which comes with a cost and intensive calculations. An investor must be apt to understand what data to analyze and what data it should filter out.
- It is very prone to recession or cyclic changes in the economy. Ans since it affects the whole market simultaneously, it is even more challenging to manage as diversification will not help. Unlike credit riskCredit RiskCredit risk is the probability of a loss owing to the borrower's failure to repay the loan or meet debt obligations. It refers to the possibility that the lender may not receive the debt's principal and an interest component, resulting in interrupted cash flow and increased cost of collection., which is very much counterparty specific, it affects all asset classes.
- It is an integral part of risk management. As it affects the whole market simultaneously, it can be lethal for an investor to ignore market risk while building a portfolio.
- They help in measuring the maximum potential loss for a portfolio. There are two significant components here–time frame and the confidence level. The time frame is the duration for which the market risk premium has to be calculated while it bases the confidence level on the investor’s comfort level. We express it in % terms like 95% or 99%. Put confidence level determines how much of a risk an investor or portfolio managerPortfolio ManagerA Portfolio Manager is an executive responsible for making investment decisions & handle investment portfolios for fulfilling the client’s investment-related objectives. Also, he/she works towards maximizing the benefits & minimizing the potential risks for clients. can take.
- It is a statistical concept, and hence its calculations are cumbersome in numbers. The various tools/mechanisms used for calculation are – Value at risk expected shortfall, variance-covariance, historical simulation, and monte Carlo simulation.
- Since market risk impacts the whole investor community irrespective of their credibility or the asset class they operate on, it is closely watched by regulators worldwide. In fact, in the last 25 years, we have witnessed four major regulations and many more minor enhancements. Basel Committee is the main regulatory body that comes up with these rules or advisories. The member nations are free to adapt or add more scrutiny to these regulations to make their banking systems much more robust.
It is an integral part of any portfolio. It arises because of the additional return that an investor expects to generate from an investment. If hedge, it can lead to better results and safeguard your losses when the market experiences downward cycles.
This has been a guide to what is market risk and its definition. Here we discuss the top 4 types of market risk, including interest rate, forex, commodities, and equity, along with examples, advantages, and disadvantages. You can learn more about financing from the following articles –