Formula to Calculate Current Yield of a Bond
The current yield formula of a bond essentially calculates the yield on a bond based on the Market price, instead of face value. The formula for calculating the current yield is as follows:
Examples
Example #1
Suppose there are two Bonds. Bond A & B. The details are as follows:
Bond A  Bond B  
Face Value  1000  1000 
Current Market Price  1200  900 
Annual Coupon Rate  10%  10% 
The current yield of A & B Bond will be calculated as follows:
For Bond A
Step 1: Calculate Annual coupon payment
 Face value * Annual coupon rate
 1000 * 10%
 = 100
Step 2: Calculate Current Yield
 = Annual coupon payment / Current market price
 = 100 / 1200
 = 8.33%
For Bond B
Step 1: Calculate Annual coupon payment
 = Face value * Annual coupon rate
 = 1000 * 10%
 = 100
Step 2: Calculate Current Yield
 = Annual coupon payment / Current market price
 = 100 / 900
 = 11.11%
Example #2
Let us now analyze how current yield differs under various scenarios for a bond.
Discount Bond  Premium bond  Par bond  
Face Value  1000  1000  1000 
Current market price  950  1050  1000 
Annual coupon rate  10%  10%  10% 
Annual coupon payment  100  100  100 
Scenario #1: Discount Bond
Suppose the Bond is trading at a discount, meaning the current market price is lesser than the face value.
In this case, the current yield will be;
 = Annual coupon payment / Current market price
 = 100/ 950
 = 10.53%
Scenario #2: Premium bond
Suppose B is trading at a premium, meaning the current market price is greater than the face value.
In this case, the current yield on a Premium bond will be;
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 = Annual coupon payment / Current market price
 = 100/ 1200
 = 9.52%
Scenario #3: Par bond
Here the current market price is equal to the face value.
In this case, the current yield on a par bond will be;
 = Annual coupon payment / Current market price
 = 100/ 1000
 = 10%
The above relationship can be understood in the below table:
A wellinformed investor relies on various types of calculations to better analyze the multiple investment opportunities and decide which opportunity to pursue. Some of the calculations that are relevant for the bond market are Yield to maturity, Current Yield, Yield to the first call, etc.
If you observe closely, the current yield of a discount bond is greater than the annual coupon rate because of the inverse relationship that exists between the yield of a bond and its market price. Similarly, the yield on a premium bond is lower than its annual coupon rate and equal for a par bond. The reason why current yield fluctuates and deviates from the annual coupon rate is because of the changes in interest rate market dynamics based on Inflation expectations of the investors.
Example #3
Suppose an investor wants to invest in the Bond market and shortlists two bonds according to his risk tolerance. Both bonds have the same level of risk & maturity. Based on the details provided below, which bond should the investor consider investing in?
Bond  Annual coupon payment  Face value  Current market price 
ABC  100  1000  1500 
XYZ  100  1000  1200 
Let us calculate the current yield of both bonds to determine which one is a good investment
For ABC
 = Annual coupon payment / Current market price
 = 100/ 1500
 =6.66%
For XYZ
 = Annual coupon payment / Current market price
 = 100/ 1200
 = 8.33%
Well, clearly, it is the Bond with a higher yield that attracts the investor, as it gives a higher return on Investment. Therefore, Investors will select bond XYZ for investment, as it offers a higher current yield of 8.33% as compared to 6.66% offered by ABC.
Calculator
You can use the following calculator.
Annual coupon payment  
Current Market price  
Current Yield of Bond  
Current Yield of Bond = 


Relevance and Use
The relevance of the Current yield formula can be seen in evaluating multiple bonds of the same risk & maturity. The coupon rate of a bond usually remains the same; however, the changes in interest rate markets encourage investors to constantly change their required rate of return (Current yield). As a result, bond prices fluctuate, and prices increase/decrease as per the required rate of return of the investors.
 One of the essential use of the Current Yield formula is to identify the yield of a bond that reflects the market sentiment. As the current yield is calculated based on current market prices, it is said to be the accurate measure of yield and reflects the true market sentiment.
 The Investor who wants to make an effective investment decision would rely on the current yield formula to make a wellinformed decision. Suppose an investor is considering making an investment and founds Bond A & B. The bond with higher is more attractive to the investor.
 It is considered to be a dynamic and fundamentally accurate measure as it keeps on changing as per the inflation expectations of the investors, as opposed to coupon rate that stays constant over the time period of the bond.
 It is always higher for a discount bond, as investors demand a higher yield for the amount of risk they are taking by investing in it.
Conclusion
Broadly speaking, the current yield is an accurate measure of calculating the yield on a bond as it reflects the market sentiment and investor expectations from the bond in terms of return. Current yield, when used with other measures such as YTM, Yield to the first call, etc. helps the investor in making the wellinformed investment decision. Moreover, it is a reliable measure given its sensitivity to inflation expectations of the bond market investors.
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