Invested Capital Formula

Article byHarsh Katara
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

What is the Invested Capital Formula?

The invested capital formula refers to the mathematical expression that allows businesses to calculate the total cash invested in it over its life, which becomes the source of its operating profits. The figure obtained becomes the metric for firms to assess how fruitful the investments are.

Invested-Capital-Formula

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Invested capital is the total money by issuing debt to bondholders and securities to equity shareholders. It would sum the capital lease obligations and total debt to the amount of equity allocated to the investors.

Key Takeaways

  • Invested capital means the total money through issuing debt to bondholders and securities to equity shareholders. 
  • It will sum the capital lease obligations and total debt to the equity given to the investors. 
  • A company may select the funding source instead of borrowing a loan from financial institutions. 
  • One can also use this to estimate ROIC, i.e., Return on Invested Capital. Again, if the ratio increases, it describes the firm as a value creator.

Invested Capital Explained

Invested capital is the capital or amount of money that firms raise to run, grow, and expand their businesses. The return that an entity receives in exchange for the monetary resources it gathers and uses, helps it assess how fruitful the latter has been.

Companies must generate more and more earnings than costs incurred to ensure that the invested capital is being utilized properly and is being fruitful for the business. In case, the scenario is the opposite, it indicates that the invested capital are not properly utilized. The formula for Invested Capital (IC) is as follows: –

Invested Capital Formula = Total Debt (Including Capital Lease) + Total Equity & Equivalent Equity Investments + Non-Operating Cash

When the businesses record significant earnings, they offer a good rate of returns to the stakeholders. Return on investment capital (ROIC) is the metric that helps assess how efficiently a company allocates its capital to generate maximum profits out of it. Likewise, the investors get an opportunity to check how well a company utilizes its capital investments. If the investors find the figures convincing, they definitely consider investing or continue with their investments in the firm., given its growth and ability to leverage.

How To Calculate?

There is a series of steps to follow to calculate invested capital using the formula. Let us have a quick look at them:

  1. Calculate the total debt, including all interest-bearing debt, whether LongLong-termread morelong term debt[/wsm-tooltip] or ShortShortread moreshort term debt[/wsm-tooltip].

  2. Calculate the total equity and equity equivalent issued to equity shareholders, including reserves.

  3. Then, calculate non-operating cash and investment.

  4. Now, take a total of step1, step2, and step3, which shall be invested capital.

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Examples

Let us consider the following examples to understand the concept better and also check the calculation part in detail:

You can download this Invested Capital Formula Excel Template here – Invested Capital Formula Excel Template

Example #1

M Co. has given the following details. So, you are required to calculate the invested capital of the firm.

Use the below data given for the calculation of economic profit Economic ProfitEconomic profit refers to the income acquired after deducting the opportunity and explicit costs from the business revenue (i.e., total income minus overall expenses). It is an internal analysis metric used by the organizations along with the accounting profits.read more.

  • Long-term debt: 235000.00
  • Short-term debt: 156700.00
  • Equity issued: 100900.00
  • Capital leases: 47899.00

Solution:

Calculation of invested capital done using the below formula: –

Invested Capital = Total Debt + Total Equity & Equivalent Equity Investments + Non-operating Cash

=(Long-term debt + short-term debt + capital leaseCapital LeaseA capital lease is a legal agreement of any business equipment or property equivalent or sale of an asset by one party (lesser) to another (lessee). The lesser agrees to transfer the ownership rights to the lessee once the lease period is completed, and it is generally non-cancellable and long-term in nature.read more) + Equity

Invested Capital Formula Example 1.1
  • =( 235,000 + 156,700 + 47,899) + 100,900

Invested Capital will be: –

Invested Capital Formula Example 1.2
  • Invested Capital= 540,499

Hence, the invested capital of the firm is 540,499.

Example #2

Barclays & Barclays, a profit-making and cash-generating firm, has published its annual reportAnnual ReportAn annual report is a document that a corporation publishes for its internal and external stakeholders to describe the company's performance, financial information, and disclosures related to its operations. Over time, these reports have become legal and regulatory requirements.read more. Below is the summary of its financial position at the end of the financial year.

Invested Capital Formula Example 2

Apart from the above, the company has also reported capital leases commitment off-balance sheetOff-balance SheetOff-balance sheet items are those assets that are not directly owned by the business and therefore do not appear in the basic format of the balance sheet. However, they tend to impact the financials of the company indirectly.read more, and the present value of the same is $35,589,970.

The management is looking to raise the return on capital ratio by repaying the debt, which shall boost the morale of its shareholders. Therefore, the company’s CFO has asked its junior to submit the number of funds the firm invests in an Excel file.

You are required to calculate the invested capital of the firm.

Solution

The CFO of the firm wants to calculate the invested capital.

First, we need to calculate the total debt and total equity.

Total Debt Calculation

Example 2.1

=337500000+495000000+123750000

Total Debt =956250000

Total Equity Calculation

IC Example 2.2

=450000000+65000000+58500000

Total Equity =573500000

Calculation of invested capital done as follows: –

IC Example 2.3

= 95,62,50,000 + 57,35,00,000 + 3,55,89,970

Total Invested Capital will be: –

IC Example 2.4
  • Invested Capital = 1,56,53,39,970

Therefore, the invested capital will be 95,62,50,000 + 57,35,00,000 + 3,55,89,970 which shall equal to 1,56,53,39,970

Note:

We have also included capital lease commitment as part of invested capital.

Example #3

Wyatt Inc. has given you the following details about its investment by raising equity and debt. The firm had not provided the equity and debt mix, but it has provided an application. Based on the information below, you must calculate the total invested capital made by Wyatt Inc.

  • Current assets: 33890193.00
  • Current liabilities: 32534585.28
  • Intangibles: 169450965.00
  • Plant and machinery: 211813706.25
  • Buildings: 232995076.88
  • Cash from non-operating assets: 78371071.31

Solution:

We will use the operating formula for calculating invested capital to solve this example.

Below are the steps to calculate invested capital using the operating approach: –

  1. Compute the net working capital and the difference of current assetsCurrent AssetsCurrent assets refer to those short-term assets which can be efficiently utilized for business operations, sold for immediate cash or liquidated within a year. It comprises inventory, cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts receivable, etc.read more, and deduct non-interest-bearing current liabilities.
  2. The second would be to take tangible assetsTangible AssetsTangible assets are assets with significant value and are available in physical form. It means any asset that can be touched and felt could be labeled a tangible one with a long-term valuation.read more – plant, equipment, and machinery.
  3. Last would be to take intangible assetsIntangible AssetsIntangible Assets are the identifiable assets which do not have a physical existence, i.e., you can't touch them, like goodwill, patents, copyrights, & franchise etc. They are considered as long-term or long-living assets as the Company utilizes them for over a year. read more, including patent and goodwill. Goodwill.In accounting, goodwill is an intangible asset that is generated when one company purchases another company for a price that is greater than the sum of the company's net identifiable assets at the time of acquisition. It is determined by subtracting the fair value of the company's net identifiable assets from the total purchase price.read more
  4. The final step would be Steps 1, Step 2, and Step 3.

We do not directly have the classification of equity and debt, but we can state that the firm has invested those funds. Hence, we shall use the total of those applications as the total invested capital.

Calculation of Working Capital

Invested Capital Formula Example 3.2

=33890193.00-32534585.28

Calculation of Tangible & Intangibles

Example 3.3

=169450965.00+211813706.25+232995076.88

Total Tangible & Intangibles = 614259748.13

Calculation of invested capital can be done as follows:-

Invested Capital Formula Example 3.4

=78371071.31+614259748.13+1355607.72

Total Invested Capital will be: –

Invested Capital Formula Example 3.5
  • Total Invested Capital = 693986427.16

One can notice that the firm has invested heavily in fixed assetsFixed AssetsFixed assets are assets that are held for the long term and are not expected to be converted into cash in a short period of time. Plant and machinery, land and buildings, furniture, computers, copyright, and vehicles are all examples.read more and the rest in working capital. The remaining is from non-operating assets.

Therefore, the total invested capital is 69,39,86,427.16.

Relevance and Uses

For a firm, invested capital Invested CapitalInvested Capital is the total money that a firm raises by issuing debt to bond holders and securities to equity shareholders. Invested Capital Formula = Total Debt (Including Capital lease) + Total Equity & Equivalent Equity Investments + Non-Operating Cash read more becomes a source of funds that allow them to capitalize on new opportunities like taking over another firm or expanding the existing ones. Listed below are its uses.

Let us have a look:

1. To purchase tangible assets like buildings, land, or equipment. 

2. To cover its routine daily operating expenses like paying for employee salary or inventory.

3. A company can choose this funding source instead of borrowing a loan from financial institutions for its needs.

4. Further, one can also use this to calculate ROIC, which is Return on Invested Capital ROIC, Which Is Return On Invested CapitalReturn on Invested Capital (ROIC) is a profitability ratio that shows how a company uses its invested capital, such as equity and debt, to generate profit. The reason this ratio is so crucial for investors before making an investment is that it helps them decide which firm to invest in.read more, and when this ratio increases, it depicts that the firm is a value creator.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Where is invested capital on the balance sheet?

The total invested capital amount is not recorded in one place on a company’s balance sheet. Instead, it is distributed among several accounts. In addition, it also includes the debt obligation, lease obligation, and shareholders’ equity line items.

Where to find invested capital?

In the balance sheet, one must choose ‘Separation of Operations and Finance’ as the layout. Then, the ‘Total Invested Capital’ will be recorded in the balance sheet along with ‘Total Current Assets,’ ‘Total Operating Liabilities’, and ‘Total Non-Current Liabilities.’

Can invested capital be negative?

The negative return on invested capital means the company is ruining its capital. Conversely, a business that consistently creates a positive return on invested capital is well-managed. Therefore, it is likely a feasible investment option for an investor.

Does investing capital include cash?

A third calculating invested capital method is to add the company’s equity book value to the debt book value and then deduct non-operating assets. It includes cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, and discontinued operations assets.

This article has been a guide to what is the Invested Capital Formula. Here, we explain the concept along with how to calculate it, examples, and relevance and uses. Also, you can learn more about financing from the following articles: –