# Total Value To Paid-In Capital

Published on :

21 Aug, 2024

Blog Author :

N/A

Edited by :

Aaron Crowe

Reviewed by :

Dheeraj Vaidya

## What Is Total Value To Paid-In Capital (TVPI)?

The total value to paid-in capital or TVIP represents a fund's overall value relative to the total capital paid into that fund to date. Fund managers utilize its formula to assess a fund's ongoing performance. Moreover, they can use it to determine the unrealized and realized gains of the fund.

This financial metric is expressed as the invested capital's multiple, for example, 0.5x or 1.5x. It is especially useful for private equity funds as their returns comprise residual holdings and distributed capital. Often, fund managers utilize TVPI in combination with the internal rate of return to evaluate a fund's performance, as the former neglects the time value of money.

##### Table of contents

- The
- The total value to paid-in capital formula includes three elements — cumulative distributions, residual value, and paid-in capital.
- There are various advantages of TVPI. For example, its calculation procedure is simple and easy to understand. Moreover, fund managers cannot easily manipulate it owing to its simple nature.
- TVPI is calculated by adding RVPI and DPI.

### Total Value To Paid-In Capital Explained

The total value to paid-in capital refers to a metric that compares the distributions a fund returned to investors and the residual value yet to be realized relative to the overall capital already invested in that fund by limited partners. It is a useful metric for investors to easily assess their investment's performance relative to the initial investment at any time.

One must note that the use of net TVPI is common as it considers carried interest, management fees, and other expenses incurred by the limited partners. That said, the gross TVPI is rare because it does not take into account the costs.

The total value paid-in capital multiple offers investors the following performance-related insights concerning their investment:

- The metric lets investors know If their investment is delivering positive returns and what amount is relative to the current stake.
- It shows how well a general partner can realize exits on investors' behalf. The distributed value to paid-in capital component informs the investors regarding the total amount of cumulative capital sent back to them. Hence, it reflects the overall liquidity provided to investors.
- The RVPI or residual value to paid-in capital offers a perspective regarding the fund's upside potential.

For the above reasons, TVPI is a popular metric in the case of private equity and is essential for both fund managers and investors.

A total value to paid-in capital multiple of more than 1 indicates that the investment's value has increased. In contrast, a TVPI multiple of less than 1 indicates that the investment's value has fallen. That said, a multiple equal to 1 means that the investment's value is the same as the amount of paid-in investment.

### Formula

The total value to paid-in capital formula is as follows:

*TVPI = (Residual Value + Cumulative Distributions) ÷ Paid-In Capital*

Where:

- Paid-in capital is the overall capital contributed to a fund by investors.
- Cumulative distributions refer to the overall distributions made to the investors to date.
- Residual value refers to the approximate current value of the investments that the fund still holds.

### Examples

Let us look at a few total value to paid-in capital examples to understand the concept better.

#### Example #1

Suppose investors made a total contribution of $100 million to a private equity fund. The fund distributed $40 million to investors from its realized deals. It was five years since the fund's inception, and it held investment assets with a residual value of 90 million.

One can compute TVPI by using the above formula.

- TVPI = ($40 million + $90 million) ÷ $100 million
- Or, TVPI = 1.3x

#### Example #2

Suppose a private equity fund has total committed capital worth $80 million from its limited partners. Out of that amount, 50% was called as on Year 4. Hence, the overall paid-in capital was $40 million. The residual value and the cumulative distributions of the fund were $30 million and $50 million, respectively.

Therefore, the calculation will be as follows:

- TVPI = ($50 million + $30 million) ÷ $40 million
- Or, TVPI = 2x

### Pros And Cons

Let us look at the benefits and limitations of TVPI.

#### Pros

- The TVPI calculation process is straightforward. Hence, one can compute it easily.
- TVPI measures the absolute return on the invested capital. This makes it easy for investors and fund managers to find out when the returns become positive.
- It includes both realized and unrealized gains. Therefore, TVPI can monitor the general partners' success with regard to realizing exits and identifying opportunities.
- The simple nature of TVPI makes it difficult for fund managers to manipulate.
- It gives investors and fund managers a cumulative performance measure for any given point during a fund's life.

#### Cons

- It heavily depends on the general partners' residual unrealized value estimates, especially during the early years of a fund's term. This might not turn out to be expected.
- As noted above, TVPI does not factor in the time value of money or TVM, which requires assumptions concerning interest rates, reinvestment rates, distributions, and timing of investments.
- TVPI's residual portion is a fair value estimation that might significantly vary from the value that is realized when investments are liquidated before distribution among investors.

### Total Value To Paid-In Capital vs Distribution To Paid-In Capital vs Residual Value To Paid-In Capital

The concepts of total value to paid-in capital, residual value to paid-in capital, and distribution to paid-in capital can be confusing, especially for people new to finance. One must learn how they differ to understand their meaning and purpose and avoid confusion. So, let us dive into the critical differences between these three concepts.

Total Value To Paid-In Capital or TVPI | Distribution To Paid-In Capital or DPI | Residual Value To Paid-In Capital or RVPI |
---|---|---|

It is a measure of a private equity fund's performance. | This measures the overall capital a private equity fund returns to its investors. | It represents the overall value of the unrealized assets that a private equity fund holds on behalf of the investors. |

This helps in finding out the realized and unrealized gains of a private equity fund. | It measures a fund's capability to return capital to its investors via exits, like strategic sales, dividend recapitalizations, and initial public offerings (IPOs). | This provides a perspective on the total value remaining in a fund with regard to the distributions the investors may have already received. |

TVPI includes both DPI and RVPI. | It is a part of TVPI. | One must add RVPI to DPI to obtain TVPI. |

### Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

**1. What's the difference between total value to paid-in capital and MOIC?**

Multiple on invested capital or MOIC divides the overall investment value by the total initial investment amount. On the other hand, TVPI divides the overall investment value (residual value and cumulative distributions) by the paid-in capital. Hence the difference between the two is the denominator. The TVPI equals MOIC when a fund has been entirely funded, and every capital call has been met.

**2. What is the relationship between IRR and total value to paid-in capital?**

TVPI provides an idea regarding the returns' relative magnitude. However, it tells nothing regarding the time taken to get the results. On the other hand, IRR, or internal rate of return, refers to a performance measure that has time embedded in it but tells nothing regarding the returns' relative magnitude.

**3. What is the difference between total value to paid-in capital and ROIC?**

One can compute TVPI by dividing the sum of residual value and cumulative distributions by the total paid-in capital. That said, one has to compute ROIC in finance by dividing the net operating profit after tax by the overall capital invested.

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