Insolvency is a state of affairs on which an entity may either emerge or cease, in which the value of the asset is less than the value of liabilities and is unable to honor its debt and lead to insolvency resolution proceedings, which if successful, the entity is not declared bankrupt.
In simple terms, a firm is called insolvent when it isn’t able to meet its financial obligations, which means that firm’s total liabilities exceed its total assets.
Example – Toys R Us
The most recent example is that of the British unit of Toys R Us has gone into insolvency administration, putting around 3200 jobs at risk. Toys R Us has been losing business to online retailers and has been heavily leveraged.
Insolvency vs Bankruptcy – Is it the Same?
It turns out that both Insolvency vs BankruptcyInsolvency Vs BankruptcyInsolvency is when the assets of an individual or an organization are insufficient compared to its liabilities. On the other hand, bankruptcy is a legal way of handling insolvency. An insolvent individual or business can help the government settle off its dues lying with the creditors. similar concepts, but not exactly the same.
- Insolvency is when a company is unable to pay its due when it’s time.
- Bankruptcy is when the court declares the company as insolvent.
So from one point of view, the insolvency of a company triggers bankruptcy. Before a company becomes insolvent, it can’t be declared bankrupt.
At the same time, we can bring in the term “liquidation”. How is liquidation related to insolvency?
If a company becomes insolvent and it is declared bankrupt, it’s time to liquidate the company. But to liquidate a company, it doesn’t always need to become insolvent. If the board membersBoard MembersBoard members comprise the individuals whom the shareholders elect as their representatives. They are responsible for taking crucial corporate decisions regarding the company's policies, dividend payouts, top-level managers' recruitment or layoff and executive compensation. of a company decides that it’s time to liquidate because the company has achieved its purpose, then a company will go through a process of liquidation, but actually, the company isn’t insolvent, to begin with.
How to ensure that a company doesn’t become insolvent?
In business, there are two kinds of factors that dictate the future prospect.
- The first kind of factors are controllable factors where you can improve your bottom lineBottom LineThe bottom line refers to the net earnings or profit a company generates from its business operations in a particular accounting period that appears at the end of the income statement. A company adopts strategies to reduce costs or raise income to improve its bottom line. , you can understand the risk of taking too much debt, and you can produce more to increase your sales.
- The second kind of factor is uncontrollable factors where you don’t have any control. The global economic crash, political issues, industrial outrage, etc. are factors that you can do nothing about.
For the first kind of factor, you always need to be aware. As a business owner, you need to know how you’re utilizing your funds, how the money is coming in and what would be the future cash flows.
For the second kind of factor, you always need to create a contingency plan. If you prepare your business for any emergent situation, you would stay afloat even during terrible mishaps.
Companies don’t become insolvent just because they go out of money but because they don’t pay attention to the following things –
- The cash inflows of the company
- The future cash flows
- The total assets
- The liabilities piling up
- Increased expenses
- Decreased production
- Poor revenue
- Contingency plans
If a company makes sure that they pay heed to the above things on a regular basis, rarely they would go out of money. If they know how much they want to allocate in overhead costsOverhead CostsOverhead cost are those cost that is not related directly on the production activity and are therefore considered as indirect costs that have to be paid even if there is no production. Examples include rent payable, utilities payable, insurance payable, salaries payable to office staff, office supplies, etc. and how much debt they can bear, the rest would be taken care of.
Can insolvency be a measure to avoid paying creditors?
This is a new strategy for a few phoenix firms to build up their assets and completely remove their liabilities.
- The directors of many firms use insolvency to abuse the whole system. They showcase it so that they don’t need to pay off the debt to the creditors. Then they appoint an administrator and in front of him, the whole assets of the company are sold.
- Since after this, the company can legally start up again, these firms do the same. They start the same company under a different name. They buy all the assets they have sold and avoided the creditors completely. And as a result, they don’t need to pay anything to the creditors.
- This system is called the pre-pack administration.
If you’re a creditor/investor, you need to do your own diligence before you ever invest in a company.
This has been a guide to what is Insolvency along with practical examples. We also discuss differences between insolvency vs bankruptcy and top strategies that companies can adopt to ensure they don’t get insolvent. You may also have a look at the following articles on Corporate Finance –