- Learn Basic Accounting in Less than 1 Hour!
- Accounting Basics
- What are Accounting Principles
- Accounting Equation Formula
- Accounting Cycle
- Accrual Accounting Basis
- Cash Basis Accounting
- Matching Principle of Accounting
- Conservatism Principle of Accounting
- GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles)
- Materiality Concept
- Accounting Transaction
- Accounting Transactions Examples
- Going Concern
- Cost Benefit Principle
- Cost Principle
- Accruals in Accounting
- Revenue Recognition Principle
- Prudence Concept in Accounting
- Cash Accounting
- What are Accounting Policies?
- Relevance in Accounting
- Accounting Estimates
- Mark to Market Accounting
- Prior Period Adjustments
- Cash Accounting vs Accrual Accounting
- Break Even Point In Accounting
- Operating Cycle
- Fiscal Year
- Fiscal Year vs Calendar Year | Top Differences | Examples |
- Financial Reporting
- Financial Statements
- Accrual vs Provision
- Accrual vs Deferral
- Temporal Method
- Interim Financial Statements
- Pro Forma Financial Statements
- Consolidated Financial Statement
- Users of Financial Statements
- Financial Statement Limitations
- Objectives of Financial Statements
- Importance of Financial Statements
- Audited Financial Statements
- Financial Statement Audit
- Internal Audit vs External Audit
- Interim Reporting
- Accounting Scandals
- Quality of Earnings
- Audit Report
- Audit Report Types
- Audit Assertions
- Audit Report Contents
- Audit Report Examples
- Audit Report Qualified Opinion
- Audit Risk
- Sunk Cost
- Cash Receipt
- Manufacturing vs Production
- Leasehold vs Freehold
- IFRS vs US GAAP
- IFRS vs Indian GAAP
- Accounting for Fair Value Hedges
- Debit vs Credit in Accounting
- Single Entry System in Accounting
- Double Entry Accounting System
- Journal in Accounting
- Accounts Payable Journal Entries
- Depreciation Journal Entry
- Accrued Expense Journal Entry
- Adjusting Entries in Journal
- General Journal
- Accounting Journal Entry
- Contra Account
- Ledger in Accounting
- T Accounts
- Account Balance
- Journal vs Ledger
- General Ledger vs Sub Ledger
- General Journal vs General Ledger
- What is Trial Balance ? | Examples | Steps | Prepare | Errors
- Post Closing Trial Balance
- Closing Entries in Accounting
- Suspense Account
- Nominal Account
- Adjusted Trial Balance
- Reconciliation of Books | Types, Best Practices | Useful Tips
- Petty Cash | Meaning | Template | Accounting | Example
- Petty Cash Book
- Debit Note | Debit Notes Accounting & its Top Characteristics
- Credit Note
- Debit Note vs Credit Note | Top 7 Differences (Infographics)
- Drawing Account
- Balance Sheet
- Balance Sheet
- How to Read a Balance Sheet?
- Balance Sheet Formula
- Classified Balance Sheet
- Balance Sheet Equation
- Balance Sheet Examples
- Balance Sheet Purpose
- Capital Expenditure Formula
- Statement of Financial Position
- Accounting Equation
- Assets vs Liabilities | Top 9 Differences (with Infographics)
- Equity vs Assets
- Trial Balance vs Balance Sheet | Top 10 Differences You Must Know!
- Balance Sheet vs Consolidated Balance Sheet
- Bank vs Company Balance Sheet
- Banks Balance Sheet
- Commitments and Contingencies
- Management Discussion & Analysis
- Revenue Reserve vs Capital Reserve | Top 7 Differences
- Revenue Reserve
- Capital Reserve
- Capital Receipts vs Revenue Receipts | Top 8 Differences
- Capital Lease vs Operating Lease | Top Differences You Must Know!
- Debt vs Equity Financing | Advantages | Disadvantages | Example
- Internal vs External Financing | Top 7 Differences (Infographics)
- Available for Sale for securities
- Held to Maturity to securities
- Non-Performing Assets (NPA)
- Asset Accounts
- Assets in Accounting
- List of Assets
- Types of Assets
- Examples of Assets
- Net Fixed Assets
- Cash and Cash Equivalents | Examples, List & Top Differences
- Cash Equivalents
- Restricted Cash
- 3 Types of Inventory | Raw Material | WIP | Finished Goods
- Inventory Write-Down
- Periodic Inventory System
- Ending Inventory Formula
- Average Inventory Formula
- Closing Stock
- Inventory vs Stock
- Current Assets
- Short Term Investments on Balance Sheet
- Current Assets vs Non-Current Assets
- Current Assets Examples
- Current Assets List
- Current Assets Formula
- FIFO vs LIFO
- First In First Out (FIFO)
- Last in First Out (LIFO)
- LIFO Reserve
- Non-Current Assets
- Accounts Receivables? | Definition, Accounting Examples
- Accounts Receivables Factoring
- Accounts Receivable Journal Entry
- Net Realizable Value Formula
- Trade Receivables
- Net Realizable Value (NRV)
- Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
- Accrued Revenue
- Liquid Assets
- Financial Assets
- Financial Assets Examples
- Financial Assets Types
- Quick Assets
- Marketable Securities on the Balance Sheet | Top Examples
- Non-Marketable Securities
- Trading Securities in Balance Sheet
- Prepaid Expenses
- Prepaid Insurance
- Tangible vs Intangible Assets
- Tangible vs Intangible
- Contingent Asset
- Tangible Assets
- Deferred Tax Assets
- Capital Expenditure (Capex)
- Capex vs Opex
- Salvage Value
- Residual Value
- Fixed Capital vs Working Capital | Top 8 Differences (Infographics)
- Impariment of Assets
- Goodwill Formula
- Intangible Assets
- Intangible Assets Examples
- Negative Goodwill
- Goodwill Valuation
- Capitalized Interest
- Liabilities Accounting
- Liabilities Examples
- Types of Liabilities on Balance Sheet
- Accounts Payable | Days Payable Outstanding | Formula |
- Current Liabilities | List of Current Liabilities on Balance Sheet
- Current Liabilities Formula
- List of Current Liabilities
- Current Liabilities Examples
- Non Current Liabilities Examples
- List of Non-Current Liabilities Examples
- Accrued Liabilities
- Accrued Expenses vs Accounts Payable
- Accrued Expenses
- Accrued Interest Formula
- Accrued Interest
- Notes Payable
- Accounts Payable vs Notes Payable
- Revolving Credit Facilities
- Bonds Payable Accounting
- Bad Debt Reserve Allowance
- Deferred Expenses
- Deferred Tax Liabilities
- Unearned Revenue (Sales)
- Deferred Revenue (Income)
- Revenue Expenditure
- Current Portion of Long-Term Debt (CPLTD) | Balance Sheet
- Long-Term Debt in Balance Sheet
- Financial Liabilities | Definition, Types, Ratios, Examples
- Financing Activities
- Long-Term Liabilities
- Liability vs Debt
- Accounts Receivable vs Accounts Payable
- Minority Interest
- Accounting for Convertibles
- Accounting for Derivatives
- Financial Lease vs Operating Lease
- Off balance Sheet Financing
- Finance vs Lease
- Bond vs Loan
- Triple Net Lease
- Credit Terms
- Debtor vs Creditor
- Shareholders Equity
- Shareholders Equity Statement
- Equity Formula
- Paid in Capital
- Shareholder's Equity Formula
- Shares Issued
- Proxy Statement
- Negative Shareholders Equity
- Par Value of Stock
- Shares Premium
- Share Capital
- Stock Certificate
- Common Stock Formula
- Class A Shares
- Diluted Shares
- Stock Dilution
- Floating Stock
- Outstanding Shares (Definition, Formula) | Stocks Outstanding
- Issued vs Outstanding Shares
- Additional Paid-in Capital on Balance Sheet
- Retained Earnings (Formula, Examples) | How to Calculate?
- Retained Earnings Formula
- Statement of Retained Earnings
- Appropriated Retained Earnings
- Unappropriated Retained Earnings
- How to Calculate Net Worth of a Company | Formula | Top Examples
- Owners Equity
- Owner's Equity Formula
- Owner's Equity Examples
- Preferred Shares
- Redeemable Preference Shares
- Non-Cumulative Preference Shares
- Participating Preferred Stock
- Weighted average Shares average outstanding
- Share Buyback
- Accelerated Share Repurchase
- Restricted Stocks Units (RSUs)
- Contingent Shares
- Stock Splits Share
- Treasury Stock Shares
- Dilutive Securities
- Anti Dilutive Securities
- Dividend Policy
- Types of Dividends
- Dividend Examples
- Stock Dividend
- Cash Dividend
- Final Dividend
- Preferred Dividends
- Homemade Dividends
- Ex dividend date
- Date of Record of dividends
- Qualified vs Ordinary Dividend
- Equity vs Royalty
- Commodity vs Equity
- Shares vs Debentures
- Equity vs Shares
- Equity Shares vs Preference Shares
- Wealth vs Profit Maximization
- Cost of preferred Stock
- Common Stock vs Preferred Stock | Top 8 Differences You Must Know
- Stocks Vs Shares
- Shares Vesting
- Stock Options Vs RSU
- Shareholder Equity vs Net Worth | Top 5 Differences You Must Know!
- Stock vs Option
- Stock vs Mutual Funds
- Income Statement
- Income Statement | Top Examples | Template | Format | Analysis
- Income Statement Basics
- Income Statement Examples
- Income Statement Formats
- Income Statement Template
- Income Statement Formula
- Multi Step Income Statement
- Profit and Loss Statement Template
- Contribution Margin Income Statement
- Sales Revenue
- Variable Costing Income Statement
- Pro Forma Income Statement
- Purpose of Income Statement
- Cost of Goods Sold
- Cost of Goods Manufactured (COGM)
- COGS Formula
- SG&A Expenses (Selling, General & Administrative)
- Interest Expense Formula
- List of Operating Expenses
- Non Operating Income
- Pretax Income (Earnings Before Taxes)
- Income Tax Expense
- Earned Income
- Average Total Cost Formula
- Gross Profit
- Direct Costs
- Indirect Costs
- Prime Cost
- Duty vs Tariff
- EBITDA Calculation
- EBIT (Earnings Before Interest and Tax)
- EBIT Calculation
- Net Operating Income
- Operating Income
- Operating Profit vs Net Profit
- Net Income Formula
- EBITDA Formula
- Operating Expense (OPEX)
- Interest Expense
- LTM EBITDA
- Non Recurring Items
- EBIT vs EBITDA | Top Differences | Examples | Calculation
- Depreciation – Formula | Types | Most Comprehensive Guide
- Depreciation Expense Formula
- Depreciation Rate
- Straight Line Depreciation Method Formula
- Accumulated Depreciation Formula
- MACRS Depreciation
- Depreciation Tax Shield
- Accelerated Depreciation
- EBITDA vs Operating Income
- Straight Line Depreciation Method
- Sum of Year Digits Method of Depreciation
- Declining Balance Method of Depreciation
- Land Depreciation
- Double Declining Balance Method
- Amortization of Intangible Assets
- Depreciation vs Amortization
- Unrealized Gains (Losses)
- Non Cash Expense
- Accrued Income
- Share based compensation
- Restructuring Cost
- Extraordinary Items
- Interest Income
- Effective Tax Rate Formula
- Progressive Tax
- Taxable Income Formula
- Completed Contract Method
- Tax Shield Formula
- Double Taxation
- Net Loss
- Pro-Forma Earnings
- Margin vs Profit
- Net Operating Loss (NOL)
- Tax Shield
- Sundry Expenses
- Trade Discount
- Trade Discount vs Cash Discount
- Percentage of Completion Method
- Interest vs Dividend | Top 9 Differences (with Infographics)
- EBITDA vs Net Income
- EBIT vs Net Income
- EBIT vs Operating Income
- Above the Line vs Below the Line
- Operating Income vs Net Income
- Cost vs Expense
- Expense vs Expenditure
- Accounting Profit vs Economic Profit
- Income Tax vs Payroll Tax
- Tax credits vs Tax deductions
- Tax Evasion vs Tax Avoidance
- Regressive Tax
- Gross Income vs Net Income
- Profit vs Revenue
- Revenue vs Earnings
- Revenue vs Net Income
- Revenue vs Income
- Profit vs Income
- Revenue vs Sales
- Revenue vs Turnover
- Capitalization vs Expensing
- Income Statement vs Balance Sheet | Top 5 Differences You Must Know!
- Statement of Comprehensive Income | Items | Colgate Example
- Variance Analysis
- Other Comprehensive Income
- Partial Income Statement
- Income Summary Account
- FOB Destination
- Explicit Cost
- Implicit Cost
- Direct cost vs Indirect Cost
- Fixed cost vs Variable cost
- Price vs Cost
- Hard Cost vs Soft Cost
- Period Cost vs Product Cost
- Overhead Costs
- Nopat vs Net Income
- Marginal Costing vs Absorption Costing
- Marginal Cost Formula
- Margin vs Markup
- Markup Formula
- Contribution Margin vs Gross Margin
- Cash Flow Statement
- Statement of Cash Flow
- Cash Flow Statement Examples
- Cash Flow Statement Importance
- Purpose of Cash Flow Statements
- Cash flow from Operations | Formula, Calculations & Examples
- Operating Cash Flow Formula
- Cash Flow from Investing Activities (Formula & Top Examples)
- Cash Flow From Financing Activities | Formula & Calculations
- Cash Flow Analysis
- Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement
- Fund Flow Statement
- FFO (Funds from Operations)
- Direct vs Indirect Cash Flow Methods
- Cash flow vs Net Income | Key Differences & Top Examples
- Cash Flow vs Fund Flow | Top 8 Differences (with Infographics)
- Accounting Careers
- Accounting Interview Questions
- Financial Accounting Careers
- Top Accounting Firms
- Big Four Accounting Firms
- Forensic Accounting
- Cost Accounting
- Financial Accounting
- Accounting vs Engineering
- Finance vs Accounting
- Bookkeeping vs Accounting
- Accounting vs Auditing
- Audit vs Assurance
- Accountant vs Actuary
- Bookkeepers vs Accountants
- Accounting vs Financial Management
- Cost Accounting vs Financial Accounting
- Cost Accounting vs Management Accounting
- Financial Accounting vs Management Accounting
- Public vs Private Accounting
- Accounting vs CPA
- Controller vs Comptroller
- Personal Banker Job Description
- Accounting Firms in Australia
- Accounting Firms in Canada
- Top Accounting Firms in US
- Accounting Firms in Singapore
- Accounting Books
- Budgeting in Finance
- What is Budgeting?
- Master Budget
- Absorption Costing
- Incremental Costs
- Average Cost vs Marginal Cost
- Job Costing vs Process Costing
- Variance Analysis Formula
- Budgeting vs Forecasting
- Traditional Budgeting vs Zero Based Budgeting in Finance
- Fixed Budget vs Flexible Budget
- Zero Based Budgeting
- Traditional Budgeting
- Purchasing vs Procurement
- Cost Center
Therefore it is important for financial analysts and investors to be aware of what they are and how they impact company’s financial position.
We discuss the following Financial Liabilities in detail –
- What are Financial Liabilities?
- Importance of liabilities & their impact on business
- Types of financial liabilities
- Long term and Short term liabilities
- Analysis of Financial Liabilities
- Financial liabilities Ratios
- Examples – High Debt companies
- Example – Low Debt Companies
What are Financial Liabilities?
A financial liabilities definition
Any future sacrifices of economic benefits that an entity is required to make as a result of its past transactions or any other activity in the past. The future sacrifices to be made by the entity can be in the form of any money or service owed to the other party.
- Financial liabilities may be usually legally enforceable due to an agreement signed between two entities. But they are not always necessarily legally enforceable.
- They can be based on equitable obligations like a duty based on ethical or moral considerations or can also be binding on the entity as a result of a constructive obligation which means an obligation that is implied by a set of circumstances in a particular situation, as opposed to a contractually based obligation.
- Financial liabilities basically include debt payable and interest payable which are as a result of use of others’ money in the past, accounts payable to other parties which are as a result of past purchases, rent and lease payable to the space owners which are as a result of the use of others’ property in the past and several taxes payable which are as a result of the business carried out in the past.
- Almost all of the financial liabilities can be found listed on the balance sheet of the entity.
Importance of liabilities & their impact on business
Although liabilities are essentially future obligations, they are nonetheless a vital aspect of a company’s operations because they are used to finance operations and pay for large expansions.
- Liabilities also make the business transactions more efficient to carry out. For instance, if a company needs to pay for every little purchased quantity every time the material is delivered, it would require several repetitions of the payment process within a short period of time.
- On the other hand, if the company gets billed for all its purchases from a particular supplier over a month or a quarter, it would clear all the payments owed to the supplier in a very limited number of transactions.
- However, they all have a date of maturity, stated or implied, on which they come due. Once liabilities come due, they can be detrimental for the business.
- Defaulting or delaying the payment of a liability may add more liabilities to the balance sheet in the form of fines, taxes and increased interest rate.
- Further, such acts can also damage the reputation of the company and affect the extent to which it will be able to use that “others’ money” in the future.
Types of financial liabilities
Liabilities are classified into two types based upon the time period within which they become due and are liable to be paid to the creditors. Based on this criterion the two types of liabilities are Short-term or Current Liabilities and Long term Liabilities.
Short term Liabilities
- Short term or current liabilities are those that are payable within a period of 1 year (next 12 months) from the time the economic benefit is received by the company.
- In other words the liabilities that belong to the current year are called short term liabilities or current liabilities.
- For example, if a company has to pay yearly rent by virtue of occupying a land or an office space etc. then that rent will be categorized under current or short term liabilities.
- Similarly, the interest payable and that part of long term debt which is payable within the current year will come under short term or current liabilities.
Long term liabilities
- Long term liabilities are those that are payable over a period of time longer than 1 year.
- For example, if a business takes out a mortgage payable over a 15 year period, it will come under long term liabilities.
- Similarly, all the debt that is not required to be paid within the current year will also be categorized as a long term liability.
Long term and Short term liabilities
For most companies, the long term liabilities comprise of mostly the long term debt which is often payable over periods even longer than a decade. However, the other items that can be classifies as long term liabilities include debentures, loans, deferred tax liabilities and pension obligations.
On the other hand, there are so many items other than interest and the current portion of long term debt that can be written under short term liabilities. Other short-term liabilities include payroll expenses and accounts payable, which includes money owed to vendors, monthly utilities and similar expenses.
In case a company has a short term liability which it intends to refinance, some confusion is likely to arise in your mind regarding its classification. To clear this confusion, it is required to identify whether there is any intent to refinance and also whether the process of refinancing has begun. If yes, and if the refinanced short term liabilities (debt in general) are going to become due over a period of time longer than 12 months due to refinancing, they can very well be reclassified as long term liabilities.
Hence, there is only one criterion which forms the basis of this classification: the next one year or 12 month period.
Analysis of Financial Liabilities
What is the need to analyse the liabilities of a company?
And who are the people most affected by a company’s liabilities?
Well, liabilities after all result into a pay out of cash or any other asset in the future. So, by itself a liability must always be looked upon as unfavourable. Still, when analysing financial liabilities, they must not be viewed in isolation. It is important to realise the overall impact of an increase or decrease in liabilities and the signals that these variations in liabilities send out to all those who are concerned.
The people whom the financial liabilities impact are the investors and equity research analysts who are involved in business of purchasing, selling and advising on the shares and bonds of a company. It is they who have to make out how much value a company can create for them in future by looking at the financial statements.
For the above reasons, experienced investors take a good look at liabilities while analyzing the financial health of any company for the purpose of investing in them. As a way to quickly size up businesses in this regard, traders have developed a number of ratios that help them in separating the healthy borrowers from those who are drowning in debt.
Financial liabilities Ratios
All the liabilities are similar to debt which needs to be paid in future to the creditors. For this reason, when doing the ratio analysis of the financial liabilities, we call them debt in general: long term debt and short term debt. So wherever a ratio has a term by the name of debt, it would mean liabilities.
You can also learn step by step financial statement analysis here
The following ratios are used to analyse the financial liabilities:
#1 – Debt Ratio
The debt ratio gives a comparison of a company’s total debt (long term plus short term) with its total assets.
Debt ratio Formula =Total debt/Total assets=Total liabilities/Total assets
- This ratio gives an idea of the company’s leverage i.e. the money borrowed from and/or owed to others.
- Sometimes analysts use it to gauge whether the company can pay out all its liabilities if it goes bankrupt and has to sell off all its assets.
- That’s the worst that can happen to a company. So if this ratio is greater than 1, it means that the company has more debt than the cash it can have on selling its assets.
- Hence, the lower the value of this ratio, the stronger the position of the company is. And thus, investing in such a company becomes as much less risky.
- However, generally the current portion of total liabilities i.e. the current liabilities (including the operational liabilities, such as accounts payable and taxes payable) is not as risky as they don’t need to be funded by selling off the assets.
- A company usually funds them through its current assets or cash.
So a clearer picture of the debt position can be seen by modifying this ratio the “long-term debt to assets ratio”.
#2 – Debt to equity ratio:
This ratio also gives an idea about the leverage of a company. It compares a company’s total liabilities to its total shareholders’ equity.
Debt to equity ratio = Total debt/Shareholder’s Equity
- This ratio gives an idea about how much its suppliers, lenders and creditors are invested in the company compared to its shareholders.
- It also tells about the capital structure of the company. The lower this ratio is, the lesser the leverage and the stronger the position of the company’s equity.
- Again, you can analyse the long term debt against the equity by removing the current liabilities from the total liabilities. That’s the analyst’s choice as per what exactly he is trying to analyse.
#3 – Capitalization ratio:
This ratio specifically compares the long term debt and the total capitalization (i.e. long term debt liabilities plus shareholders’ equity) of a company.
Capitalization ratio = Long term debt/(Long term debt +Shareholder’s equity)
- This ratio is considered to be one of the more meaningful of the “debt” ratios – it delivers the key insight into a company’s use of leverage.
- If this ratio has a low value, it would mean that the company has a low long term debt and high amount of equity.
- And it is well known that a low level of debt and a healthy proportion of equity in a company’s capital structure is an indication of financial fitness.
- Hence, a low value of capitalization is considered favourable by an investor.
#4 – Cash flow to total debt ratio:
This ratio gives an idea about a company’s ability to pay its total debt by comparing it with the cash flow generated by its operations during a given period of time.
Cash flow to debt ratio = Operating cash flow/Total debt
- The total debt does not completely belong to the given period since it also includes the long term debt.
- Still this ratio indicates whether the cash being generated from operations would suffice to pay the debt in the long term.
- Unlike the above three ratios, the debt related number (Total debt) comes in the denominator here.
- So, the more the operating cash flow is, the greater this ratio is. Thus, a greater value of this ratio is to be considered more favorable.
#5 – Interest coverage ratio:
Interest coverage ratio gives an idea about the ability of a company to pay its debt by using its operating income. It is the ratio of a company’s earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) to the company’s interest expenses for the same period.
Interest coverage ratio=EBIT/Interest expense
- A greater value of this ratio must be taken as favourable while a lower value must be considered as unfavourable for investment.
- This ratio is quite different from the above four ratios by virtue of being a short term liability related ratio.
- It takes into account only the interest expense which is essentially one of the short term liabilities.
- Also, do have a look at Debt Service coverage Ratio (important for credit analysts)
#6 – Current Ratios and Quick Ratios
Important among other ratios used to analyse the short term liabilities are the current ratio and the quick ratio. Both of them help an analyst in determining whether a company has the ability to pay off its current liabilities.
The current ratio is the ratio of total current assets to the total current liabilities.
Current ratio=Total current assets/Total current liabilities
- The current ratio is a liquidity ratio that measures a company’s ability to pay short-term and long-term obligations.
The quick ratio is the ratio of the total current assets less inventories to the current liabilities.
Quick ratio= (Total current assets-Inventories)/Total current liabilities
- The quick ratio measures a company’s ability to meet its short-term obligations with its most liquid assets.
The above ratios are some of the most common ratios used to analyse a company’s liabilities. However, there is no limit to the number and type of ratios to be used.
- You can take any suitable terms and take their ratio as per the requirement of your analysis. The only aim of using the ratios is to get a quick idea about the components, magnitude and quality of a company’s liabilities.
- Also, as is true with any kind of ratio analysis, the type of company and the industry norms must be kept in mind before concluding whether it is high or low on debt when using the above ratios as the basis. It is a comparative analysis after all!
- For instance, large and well-established companies can push the liability component of their balance sheet structure to higher percentages without getting into trouble while smaller firms may not.
Financial Liabilities Examples
High debt companies:
These days, the whole oil exploration and production industry is suffering from an unprecedented piling up of debt. Exxon, Shell, BP and Chevron have combined debts of $ 184 billion amid two-year slump. The reason is that crude oil prices have stayed lower than profitable levels for too long now. And these companies did not expect this downturn to extend this long. So they took too much of debt in order to finance their new projects and operations.
But now, since the new projects have not turned profitable, they are unable to generate enough income or cash to pay back that debt. This means that their Income coverage ratios and Cash flow to debt ratios have seriously declined making them unfavorable to invest.
Exxon Mobil Debt to Equity (Quarterly Chart)
As the investment becomes unfavorable, investors pull out their money from the stock. As a result, the debt to equity ratio increases as can be seen in the case of Exxon Mobil in the above chart.
Now, the oil companies are trying to generate cash by selling some of their assets every quarter. So, their debt paying ability presently depends upon their Debt ratio. If they have got enough assets, they can get enough cash by selling them off and pay the debt as it comes due.
Low debt companies
On the other hand, there are companies like Pan American Silver (a silver miner), which are low on debt. Pan American had a debt of only $ 59 million compared to the cash, cash equivalents and short term investments of $ 204 million at the end of the June quarter of 2016. This means that the ratio of debt to cash, cash equivalents and short term investments is just 0.29. Cash, cash equivalents and short term investments are the most liquid assets of a company. And the total debt is only 0.29 times of that. So, from a view point of “ability to pay the debt”, Pan American is a very favorable investment as compared to those oil companies at the moment.
Pan America Silver Debt to Equity (Quarterly)
Now, the above chart of Pan American also shows an increase in debt to equity ratio. But look at the value of that ratio in both charts. It’s 0.261 for Exxon while it’s only 0.040 for Pan American. This comparison clearly shows that investing in Pan American is much less risky than investing in Exxon.
Financial Liabilities Video
There is no single method for analyzing financial liabilities. However, finding out meaningful ratios and comparing them with other companies is one well established and recommended method for the purpose of deciding over investing in a company. There are certain traditionally defined ratios for this purpose. But you can very well come up with your own ratios depending upon the purpose of analysis.
- Operating Cash Flow Formula in Excel
- What is the Purpose of Income Statement?
- Top Credit Analyst Interview Questions and Answers
- Top 5 Credit Analyst Career Path
- Fundamental Analysis Technique
- Current Portion of Long-Term Debt Example
- Capital Lease vs Operating Lease
- Balance Sheet Definition
- Marketable Securities Definition
- Revolving Credit Facilities
- Shareholders Equity Profit
- Purpose of Income Statement