Money Market vs Capital Market
Both the money market and the capital market are the two different types of the financial markets where in the money market is used for the purpose of short term borrowing and lending whereas the capital market is used for the long term assets i.e., the assets which have the maturity of more than one year.
Money market and Capital market are types of financial markets. Money markets are used for short-term lending or borrowing usually the assets are held for one year or less whereas, Capital Markets are used for long-term securities they have a direct or indirect impact on the capital. Capital markets include the equity market and the debt market.
What is the Money Market?
Money markets are unorganized markets where banks, financial institutions, money dealers and brokers trade in financial instruments for a short period of time. They trade in short-term debt instruments like trade credit, commercial paper, certificate of deposit, T bills, etc. which are highly liquid and can be redeemed in the period less than 1.
Trading in the money market is done mostly through over the counter (OTC) i.e. no or little use of exchanges. They provide businesses with short-term credit and play a major role in providing liquidity in the economy over the short term. It helps the business and industries with working capital requirements.
What is Capital Market?
The capital market is a type of financial market where financial products like stocks, bonds, debentures are traded for a long duration of time. They serve the purpose of long-term financing and long-term capital requirement. The Capital market is a dealer and an auction market and consists of two categories:
- Primary market: A primary market where the fresh issue of securities are offered to the public
- Secondary market: A secondary market where issued securities are traded between the investors.
Money Market vs Capital Market Infographics
- Short-term securities are traded in money markets whereas long-term securities are traded in capital markets
- Capital markets are well organized whereas money markets are not that organized
- Liquidity is high in the money market whereas liquidity is comparatively low in capital markets
- Due to high liquidity and low duration of maturity in money markets, Instruments in money markets are a low risk whereas capital markets are the comparatively high risk
- A central bank, commercial banks and non-financial institutions are majorly work in money markets whereas stock exchanges, commercial banks, and non-banking institutions work in capital markets
- Money markets are required to fulfill the capital needs in the short-term especially the working capital requirements and capital markets are required to provide long-term financing and a fixed capital for purchasing land, property, machinery, building, etc.
- Money markets provide liquidity in the economy where capital markets stabilize the economy due to long-term financing and mobilization of savings
- Capital markets generally give higher returns whereas money markets give a low return on investments
|Basis for Comparison||Money Market||Capital Market|
|Definition||It is the part of financial market where lending and borrowing takes place for short-term up to one year||Capital market is part of the financial market where lending and borrowing takes place for the medium-term and long-term|
|Types of instruments involved||Money markets generally deal in promissory notes, bills of exchange, commercial paper, T bills, call money, etc.||Capital market deals in equity shares, debentures, bonds, preference shares, etc.|
|Institutions involved/types of investors||The money market contains financial banks, the central bank, commercial banks, financial companies, chit funds, etc.||It involves stockbrokers, mutual funds, underwriters, individual investors, commercial banks, stock exchanges, Insurance Companies|
|Nature of Market||Money markets are informal||Capital markets are more formal|
|Liquidity of the market||Money markets are liquid||Capital Markets are comparatively less liquid|
|Maturity period||The maturity of financial instruments is generally up to 1 year||The maturity of capital markets instruments is longer and they do not have stipulated time frame|
|Risk factor||Since the market is liquid and the maturity is less than one year, Risk involved is low||Due to less liquid nature and long maturity, the risk is comparatively high|
|Purpose||The market fulfills the short-term credit needs of the business||The capital market fulfills the long-term credit needs of the business|
|Functional merit||The money markets increase the liquidity of funds in the economy||The capital market stabilizes the economy due to long-term savings|
|Return on investment||The return in money markets are usually low||The returns in capital markets are high because of higher duration|
- Both are part of the financial markets. The main aim of the financial markets is to channelize funds and to generate returns. The financial markets stabilize the money supply by lending borrowing mechanism i.e. surplus funds are provided to borrowers by the lenders.
- Both are required for the betterment of the economy as they fulfill the long-term and short-term capital needs of the business and industry. The markets encourage individuals to invest money to gain good returns.
- Investors can tap into each of the markets depending on their needs. Capital markets are generally less liquid but provide good returns at higher risk whereas money markets are highly liquid but provide lower returns. Money markets are also considered safe assets.
- However, due to market anomalies and inefficiency due to some aberrations above may not hold. Investors try to look for arbitrage opportunities due to such anomalies to get higher returns. Money markets are considered safe but they sometimes give negative returns. Thus, investors should study the pros and cons of each financial instrument and the condition of the financial market before putting their money for the short term or long term.
Money Market vs Capital Market Video
This has been a guide to Money Market vs Capital Market. Here we discuss the top differences between the money market and the capital market with infographics and comparison table. You may also have a look at the following articles –