Operating Cash Flow Formula

Formula to Calculate Operating Cash Flow (OCF)

Operating Cash Flow Formula signifies the cash flow generated from the core operating activities of the business after deducting the operating expenses and helps in analyzing how strong and sustainable is the business model of the company.

Operating cash flow (OCF) is a measure of the cash that a business produces from its principal operation in a specific time period. It is also known as cash flow from operations. It is not the same as net income neither EBITDA nor free cash flowFree Cash FlowThe cash flow to the firm or equity after paying off all debts and commitments is referred to as free cash flow (FCF). It measures how much cash a firm makes after deducting its needed working capital and capital expenditures (CAPEX).read more, but all are used for measurement of performance of a company as net income includes a transaction that did not involve the actual transfer of money like depreciation which is a non-cash expense that is part of net income not of OCF.

There are two formulas to calculate Operating Cash Flow – one is a direct method, and the other is an indirect method.

#1 – Direct Method (OCF Formula)

This method is very simple and accurate. But as it does not provide much detailed information to the investor, therefore companies use the indirect method of OCF. OCF is equal to Total revenue minus Operating expense.

The formula to calculate OCF using the direct method is as follows –

Operating Cash Flow = Total Revenue – Operating Expense

#2 – Indirect Method (Operating Cash Flow Formula)

The indirect method is adjusted net income from changes in all non-cash accounts on the balance sheetBalance SheetA balance sheet is one of the financial statements of a company that presents the shareholders' equity, liabilities, and assets of the company at a specific point in time. It is based on the accounting equation that states that the sum of the total liabilities and the owner's capital equals the total assets of the company.read more. Depreciation is added to net income while adjusting changes in inventory and cash receivable. And OCF calculates with net income adds any non-cash item and adjusts for changes in net capital. This provides total cash generated.

Operating Cash Flow formula using the indirect method can be represented as follows –

Operating Cash Flow = Net Income +/- Changes in Assets&Liability + Non-Cash Expenses

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For eg:
Source: Operating Cash Flow Formula (wallstreetmojo.com)

Explanation

Now, let us see what the main steps required to calculate the Operating Cash Flow are.

The full formula of Operating Cash Flow is as follows:-

OCF = Net Income + Depreciation + Stock-Based Compensation + Deferred TaxDeferred TaxDeferred Tax is the effect that occurs in a firm as a result of timing differences between the date when taxes are actually paid to tax authorities by the company and the date when such tax is accrued. Simply put, it is the difference in taxes that arises when taxes due in one of the accounting period are either not paid or overpaid.read more + Other non-cash items – Increase in Account Receivable – Increase in Inventory + Increase in Accounts Payable + Increase in Accrued Expenses + Increase in Deferred Revenue

Components

Let’s analyze the various component of the OCF Formula, which are as follows:-

Hence, in short, the OCF formula is:-

ocf formula3

Practical Examples of Calculating Operating Cash Flow

You can download this Operating Cash Flow Formula Excel Template here – Operating Cash Flow Formula Excel Template

Example #1

Suppose there is a company with total revenue of $1,200 and an overall operating expenseOverall Operating ExpenseOperating expense (OPEX) is the cost incurred in the normal course of business and does not include expenses directly related to product manufacturing or service delivery. Therefore, they are readily available in the income statement and help to determine the net profit.read more of $700, and now, if one wants to calculate Operating Cash Flow, then the Direct method will be used.

In below template is the data for the calculation of Operating Cash Flow.

ParticularsAmount
Total Revenue$1,200
Operating Expense$700
Operating Cash Flow (OCF)?

So, the calculation of Operating Cash Flow (OCF) will be as –

Operating Cash Flow example1.2

i.e. OCF Direct = 1,200 – 700

So, OCF will be –

Operating Cash Flow example1.3

Therefore, OCF = $500

Example #2

Now, suppose a company has a net income of $756, a non-cash expense of $200, and changes in asset-liability i.e., inventory is $150, account receivableAccount ReceivableAccounts receivables refer to the amount due on the customers for the credit sales of the products or services made by the company to them. It appears as a current asset in the corporate balance sheet.read more $150. Then, Operating Cash FlowOperating Cash FlowCash flow from Operations is the first of the three parts of the cash flow statement that shows the cash inflows and outflows from core operating business in an accounting year. Operating Activities includes cash received from Sales, cash expenses paid for direct costs as well as payment is done for funding working capital.read more through indirect method will be as follows:-

In below template is the data for the calculation of Operating Cash Flow Equation.

ParticularsAmount
Net Income$756
Non- Cash Expense$200
Changes in Operating Assets and Liabilities
Inventory$150
Account Receivable$150
Operating Cash Flow (OCF)?

So, the calculation of Operating Cash Flow (OCF) using the indirect method will be as –

Operating Cash Flow Formula example2.2

i.e. OCF Indirect = 756 + 200 – 150 – 150

So, OCF will be –

Operating Cash Flow example2.3

OCF = $256

GAAP requires a company to use an indirect method to compute the figure as it gives all the necessary information and covers the same.

Example #3

A company named Ozone Pvt. Ltd has financial statements into three sections i.e., operations activities, finance activitiesFinance ActivitiesThe various transactions that involve the movement of funds between the company and its investors, owners, or creditors in order to achieve long-term growth are referred to as financing activities. Such activities can be analyzed in the financial section of the company's cash flow statement.read more, and investing activities. Below is an operational activity financial statement, through which we have to calculate Operating Cash Flow.

operating cash flow example3.1

Now, let’s calculate OCF for different periods using the above-given data.

OCF For 2016

operating cash flow example3.2

OCF2016 = 456 + 4882 + 2541 + 250 + 254 + 86 – 2415 – 1806 + 4358 + 856 + 1351

OCF2016 = $ 10,813

OCF For 2017

operating cash flow example3.3

OCF2017 = 654 + 5001 + 2681 + 300 + 289 + 91 – 2687 – 1948 + 5213 + 956 + 1405

OCF2017 = $ 11,955

OCF For 2017

ocf example3.4

OCF2018 = 789 + 5819 + 3245 + 325 +305 + 99 – 2968 – 2001 + 5974 + 1102 + 1552

OCF2018 = $ 14,241

Hence, we found OCF for a different period of a company.

Things to Remember

  • If OCF is negative, it means a company has to borrow money to do things, or it may not stay in business, but it may possibly in a long term company get a benefit.
  • It may be possible that a company has a high cash flow than net income. In this scenario, it is possible that a company is generating huge revenue but decrease them with accelerated depreciation on the income statement.
  • When net income is high than OCF, it may be possible that they have a difficult time collecting receivable from the customer. As depreciation as added in OCF formula, depreciation does not affect OCF.
  • Investors should choose a company that has high or improving OCF but low share prices. A company can face loss or small profit in a period because of large depreciation. However, it can have a strong cash flow since depreciation is an accounting expense but not in cash form.

Operating Cash Flow Calculator

You can use the following calculator for the calculation of Operating Cash Flow.

Total Revenue
Operating Expense
Operating Cash Flow Formula
 

Operating Cash Flow Formula = Total Revenue Operating Expense
0 0 = 0

Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to Operating Cash Flow Formula (OCF). Here we learn how to calculate cash flow from operations using two formulas (Direct & Indirect Method) along with practical examples downloadable excel template and calculator. You can learn more about financial analysis from the following articles –

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