What is Fund Flow Statement Format?
The fund flow statement is a summary of the source of funds and the application of funds that compares the balance sheets of two different dates and analyse from where company has earned money and where the company has spent money. With the help of fund flow statement format, it becomes a condensed version to analyze the sources and application of fund.
Three Parts of Fund Flow Statement Format
#1 – Statement of Changes in Working Capital: Working capital means the difference between the current assetsCurrent AssetsCurrent assets refer to those short-term assets which can be efficiently utilized for business operations, sold for immediate cash or liquidated within a year. It comprises inventory, cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts receivable, etc. and current liabilitiesCurrent LiabilitiesCurrent Liabilities are the payables which are likely to settled within twelve months of reporting. They're usually salaries payable, expense payable, short term loans etc.. If there is an increase in working capital, then it will be an application of funds, and if there is a decrease in working capital, then it will be a source of funds.
#2 – Funds from Operations: If we earn a profit, then it will be a source of funds, and if there is a loss, then it will be an application of funds.
#3 – Fund Flow Statement: After preparing the above two requirements, we will prepare the fund flow statement, which will comprise all outflow and inflow of funds.
- Source of Fund: It is basically used to know where funds have been arranged to invest in the business. The Source of the fund can be in the form of the issue of sharesIssue Of SharesShares Issued refers to the number of shares distributed by a company to its shareholders, who range from the general public and insiders to institutional investors. They are recorded as owner's equity on the Company's balance sheet., debentures, profit from operations, dividend received on investments, and proceeds from borrowings, etc.
- Application of Fund: It is basically used to know where the arranged to fund has been invested. Application of funds can be in the form of the purchase of fixed assets, an increase in working capital, purchase of investments, the dividend paid, repayment of borrowings, interest paid, etc.
How to Prepare a Fund Flow Statement? (Examples)
#1 – Statement of Change in Working Capital
Now we will see the format of “statement of change in working capital.”
- In this format, there are two parts first is current assets and current liabilities. We will take current assets and current liabilities from the balance sheet as on 31st March’19 and 31st March’18. Then calculate net working capitalCalculate Net Working CapitalThe Net Working Capital (NWC) is the difference between the total current assets and total current liabilities. A positive net working capital indicates that a company has a large number of assets, while a negative one indicates that the company has a large number of liabilities. (After deduction of Current Liabilities from Current Assets) of both the year. After that, compare the net working capital of both the year and find out changes in working capital.
- In the below example, net working capital as on 31st Mar ’19 and 31st Mar ’18 is $ 12000 and $ 5500 respectively, therefore for the current year, i.e., Mar ’19 increase in working capital is $ 6,500.
#2 – Prepare a Statement of Fund From Operations
After preparing the statement of change in working capital, now we need to prepare a statement of fund from operations:
- In this statement, we will take the profit/loss from the profit & loss a/c. Then, we need to make some adjustments in profit/loss.
- We prepare Profit & loss accounts on an accrual basis. In this non-cash expensesNon-cash ExpensesNon-cash expenses are those expenses recorded in the firm's income statement for the period under consideration; such costs are not paid or dealt with in cash by the firm. It involves expenses such as depreciation. like depreciation, bad debtBad DebtBad Debts can be described as unforeseen loss incurred by a business organization on account of non-fulfillment of agreed terms and conditions on account of sale of goods or services or repayment of any loan or other obligation., any expenses are written offWritten OffWrite off is the reduction in the value of the assets that were present in the books of accounts of the company on a particular period of time and are recorded as the accounting expense against the payment not received or the losses on the assets. are also considered for getting the actual profit or loss.
- We will add back or less, as the case may be, those non- cash expenses, and we will get the cash profit/loss.
- In the below format, we have assumed the current year’s profit is $ 20000. Then we have identified non-cash items which have been deducted in profit & loss a/c which is $ 3230 which is now add back in current year profit, and non-operating item which has been added in profit & loss account of $ 120 has been reduced from current year profit.
- After adding and deducting non-cash items or non-operating items, we will reach the position in which fund flow from operations can be derived, i.e., $ 23110.
#3 – Prepare the Fund Flow Statement
Last, we will prepare the fund flow statement
- In this statement, we will find out the sources of fund and their applications.
- In the above example, we have seen that increases in working capital are $ 6,500 (considered as Applications of the fund), and the fund from an operation is $ 23,110 (considered as Source of Fund).
- Suppose we have issued share capitalIssued Share CapitalShare capital refers to the funds raised by an organization by issuing the company's initial public offerings, common shares or preference stocks to the public. It appears as the owner's or shareholders' equity on the corporate balance sheet's liability side. in the market amounting to $ 5000 (considered as Source of Fund). Arranged Source of the fund is used for enhancement in working capital and purchase of fixed assetsFixed AssetsFixed assets are assets that are held for the long term and are not expected to be converted into cash in a short period of time. Plant and machinery, land and buildings, furniture, computers, copyright, and vehicles are all examples..
|Statement of Sources and Application of Funds||Current Year|
|Sources of Fund|
|Fund Generated from Operating Activities||23,110.00|
|Proceeds from issue of Share Capital||5,000.00|
|Total Source of Funds||28,110.00|
|Application of Fund|
|Purchase of Fixed Assets||21,610.00|
|Increase in Working Capital||6,500.00|
|Total Application of Funds||28,110.00|
- With the help of a fund flow statement format, we can prepare the fund flow statementFund Flow StatementFund flow statement is a statement that compares the two balance sheets by analyzing the sources of funds (debt and equity capital) and the application of funds (assets) and its reasons for any differences. It helps the company see through where their money has been spent and from where they have received the money (long-term funds raised by issues of shares, debentures, and sale of non-current assets).. The company prepares this statement to analyze the changes in working capital between two balance sheets. It is based on historical data. It helps the management in making future decisions, but on the basis of only the fund flow statement, management can’t take the full decision because it considers only fund based items.
- Last, management should prepare this statement because it considers all sources, i.e., from where the funds are coming and all applications, i.e., where the funds are going, and this summarised statement helps management to move further.
This has been a guide to What is Fund Flow Statement Format & its Definition. Here we discuss the three parts of the fund flow statement and how to prepare this. You can learn more about from the following articles –