Financial Statement Analysis

- Ratio Analysis (17+)
- Liquidity Ratios (29+)
- Turnover Ratios (17+)
- Profitability Ratios (66+)
- Efficiency Ratios (7+)
- Dividend Ratios (9+)
- Debt Ratios (26+)

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Ratio analysis is a mathematical method in which different financial ratios of a company, taken from the financial sheets and other publicly available information, are analysed to gain insights into company’s financial and operational details.

**Ratio Analysis of Financial Statements – This is the most comprehensive guide to Ratio Analysis / Financial Statement Analysis**

This expert-written guide goes beyond the usual gibberish and explore practical Financial Statement Analysis as used by Investment Bankers and Equity Research Analysts.

Here I have taken Colgate case study and calculated Ratios in excel from scratch.

Please note that this **Ratio Analysis of financial statement guide is over 9000 words and took me 4 weeks to complete.** Do save this page for future reference and don’t forget to share it 🙂

**MOST IMPORTANT** – Download the Colgate Ratio Excel template to follow the instructions

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## Ratio Analysis / Financial Statement Analysis – Read me First

**Step 1 –** Download Colgate Excel Model Ratio Analysis Template. You will be using this template for the ratio analysis tutorial

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**Step 3-** You should start with the Unsolved Colgate Ratio Analysis Model Template. Follow the step by step Ratio Analysis calculation instructions for analysis. You can download Colgate’s SEC Filings from here.

**Step 4 –** Happy Learning!

## Ratio Analysis of financial statement

I have made an easy navigation for you to learn Ratio Analysis Types.

- What is Financial Statement Analysis / Ratio Analysis
- Vertical Analysis or Common Size Statements
- Horizontal Analysis
- Trend Analysis
- Ratio Analysis
**Liquidity Ratio Analysis****Solvency Ratio Analysis****Turnover Ratios****Ratio Analysis – Operating Performance****Operating Efficiency Ratio Analysis****Operating Profitability Ratio Analysis****Ratio Analysis – Risk****Business Risk****Financial Risk****Ratio Analysis – External Liquidity Risk**

## What is Financial Statement Analysis / Ratio Analysis?

The purpose of Financial Statement Analysis (Ratio Analysis) is to evaluate management performance in Profitability, Efficiency and Risk

Although financial statement information is historical, it is used to project future performance

Financial Statement Analysis (Ratio analysis) can be done using Three Methods –

**Vertical Analysis (also called as Common Size Statements Analysis)**– It compares the each item of to the base case of the financial statements. All income statement items are expressed as percentage of Sales. Balance Sheet Items are expressed as a percentage of Total Assets or Total Liabilities (please note Total Assets = Total Liabilities)**Horizontal Analysis –**It compares the two financial statements (income statement, balance sheet) o determine the absolute change as well as percentage changes.

**Ratio Analysis – **Puts important business variables into perspective by comparing it with other numbers. It provides meaningful relationship between individual values in the financial statements.

So, which one is the best when it comes to **Financial Statement Analysis? **

Ofcourse, you can’t pick and choose a single method as the best and ONLY method to do the financial statement analysis.

**You need to do all THREE analysis in-order to get a complete picture of the Company.**

Let us look at each one of them one by one.

## Vertical Analysis or Common Size Statements

Vertical analysis is a technique used to identify where a company has applied its resources and in what proportions those resources are distributed among the various balance sheet and income statement accounts. The analysis determines the relative weight of each account and its share in asset resources or revenue generation

#### Vertical Analysis – Income Statement

- On the income statement, vertical analysis is a universal tool for measuring the firm’s relative performance from year to year in terms of cost and profitability.
- It should always be included as part of any financial analysis. Here, percentages are computed in relation to Sales which are considered to be 100%.
- This vertical analysis effort in the income statement is often referred to as margin analysis, since it yields the different margins in relation to sales.
- It also helps us do the time series analysis ( how the margins has increased/decreased over the years) and also helps in cross sectional analysis with other comparable companies in the industry.

###### Vertical Analysis of Income Statement: Colgate Case Study

- For each year, Income Statement line items is divided by its respective year’s Top Line (Net Sales) number.
- For example, for Gross Profit, it is Gross Profit / Net Sales. Likewise for other numbers

###### What can we interpret with Vertical Analysis of Colgate Palmolive

- Vertical Ratio Analysis helps us with analyzing the historical trends.
- Please note that from vertical analysis we only get to the point of
**asking the right questions (identification of problems).**However, we do not get answers to our questions here. - In Colgate, we note that gross profit margin (Gross Profit / Net Sales) has been in the range of 56%-59%.
**Why Fluctuating?** - We also note that the Selling General and administrative expenses (SG&A) has decreased from 36.1% in 2007 to 34.1% in the year ending 2015.
**Why?** - Also, note that the operating income has dropped significantly in 2015.
**Why?** - Net income decreased substantially to less than 10%.
**Why?** - Also, effective tax rates jumped to 44% in 2015 (from 2008 until 2014, it was in the range of 32-33%).
**Why?**

#### Vertical Analysis – Balance Sheet (Common Size Ratio?)

- Vertical Analysis of the Balance Sheet normalizes the Balance Sheet and expresses each item in the percentage of total assets/liabilities.
- It helps us to understand how each item of the balance sheet has moved over the years. For eg. Debt has increased or decreased?
- It also helps in cross sectional analysis (comparing the balance sheet strength with other comparable companies)

###### Vertical Analysis of Balance Sheet: Colgate Case Study

- For each year, Balance Sheet line items is divided by its respective year’s Top Assets (or Total Liabilities) number.
- For example, for Accounts Receivables, we calculate as Receivables / Total Assets. Likewise for other balance sheet items

###### Interpretation of Colgate’s Vertical Analysis

- Cash and Cash equivalents has increased from 4.2% in 2007 and is currently standing at 8.1% of the total assets.
**Why a built-up of cash?** - Receivables has decreased from 16.6% in 2007 to 11.9% in 2015.
**Does this mean a stricter credit policy terms?** - Inventories has decreased too from 11.6% to 9.9% overall.
**Why?** - What is included in “other current assets”? It shows a stead increase from 3.3% to 6.7% of the total assets over the last 9 years.
- What is included in other assets? Why shows a fluctuating trend?

- On the liabilities side, there can be many observations we can highlight. Accounts payable decreased continuously over the past 9 years and currently stands at 9.3% of the total assets.
- Why there has been a significant jump in the Long Term Debt to 52,4% in 2015. For this we need to investigate this in the 10K?
- Non controlling interests has also increased over the period of 9 years and is now at 2.1%

## Horizontal Analysis

As with the vertical analysis methodology, issues will surface that need to be investigated and complemented with other financial analysis techniques. The focus is to look for symptoms of problems that can be diagnosed using additional techniques. Let’s look at an example.

###### Horizontal Analysis of Colgate’s Income Statement

For example, to find growth rate of Net Sales of 2015, the formula is (Net Sales 2015 – Net Sales 2014) / Net Sales 2014

###### What can we interpret with Horizontal Analysis of Colgate Palmolive

- The last two years Colgate has seen a dip in Net Sales figures. In 2015, Colgate saw a de-growth of -7.2% in 2015. Why?
- Cost of Sales, however, has decreased (positive from company’s point of view). Why is this so?
- Net Income decreased in the last three years, with as much as 36.5% delcine in 2015.

## Trend Analysis

Trend Analysis compare the overall growth of key financial statement line item over the years from the base case.

For example, in case of Colgate, we assume that 2007 is the base case and analyze the performance in Sales and Net profit over the years.

- We note that Sales has increased by only 16.3% over a period of 8 years (2008-2015).
- We also note that the overall net profit has decreased by 20.3% over the 8 year period.

## Ratio Analysis of Financial Statements

Ratio analysis of financial statement is another tool that helps identify changes in a company’s financial situation. A single ratio is not sufficient to adequately judge the financial situation of the company. Several ratios must be analyzed together and compared with prior-year ratios, or even with other companies in the same industry. This comparative aspect of ratio analysis is extremely important in financial analysis. It is important to note that ratios are parameters and not precise or absolute measurements. Thus, ratios must be interpreted cautiously to avoid erroneous conclusions. An analyst should attempt to get behind the numbers, place them in their proper perspective and, if necessary, ask the right questions for further types of ratio analysis.

## Solvency Ratio Analysis

Solvency Ratio Analysis type is primarily sub-categorized into two parts – Liquidity Ratio Analysis and Turnover Ratio Analysis of financial statement. They are further sub-divided into 10 ratios as seen in the diagram below.

We will discuss each sub category one by one.

### Liquidity Ratios

Liquidity ratio analysis measure how liquid the company’s assets are (how easily can the assets be converted into cash) as compared to its current liabilities. There are three common liquidity ratio

- Current ratio analysis
- Acid test (or quick asset) ratio analysis
- Cash Ratio analysis

### #1 – Current Ratio Analysis

#### What is Current Ratio Analysis?

Current ratio is the most frequently used ratio to measure company’s liquidity as it is quick, intuitive and easy measure to understand the relationship between the current assets and current liabilities. It basically answers this question** “How many dollars in current assets does the company have to cover each $ of current liabilities”**

Let us take a simple Current Ratio Calculation example,

Current Ratio = $200 / $100 = 2.0x

This implies that the company has two dollar of current assets for every one dollar of current liabilities.

#### Analyst Interpretation of Current Ratio

- Current ratio analysis provides us with a rough estimate that whether the company would be able to “survive” for one year or not. If Current Assets is greater than Current Liabilities, we interpret that the company can liquidate its current assets and pay off its current liabilities and survive atleast for one operating cycle.
- Current Ratio analysis in itself does not provide us with full details of the quality of current assets and whether they are fully realizable.
- If the current assets consists primarily of receivables, we should investigate the collectability of such receivables.
- If current assets consists of large Inventories, then we should be mindful of the fact that inventories will take longer to convert into cash as they cannot be readily sold. Inventories are much less liquid assets than receivables.
- Average maturities of current assets and current liabilities should also be looked into. If current liabilities mature in the next one month, then current assets providing liquidity in 180 days may not be of much use.

#### Current Ratio analysis – Colgate Case Study Example

Let us now calculate the Current Ratios for Colgate.

- Colgate has maintained a healthy current ratio of greater than 1 in the past 10 years.
- Current ratio of Colgate for 2015 was at 1.24x. This implies that current assets of Colgate are more than current liabilities of Colgate.
- However, we still need to investigate on the quality and liquidity of Current Assets. We note that around 45% of current assets in 2015 consists of Inventories and Other Current Assets. This may affect the liquidity position of Colgate.
- When investigating Colgate’s inventory, we note that majority of the Inventory consists of Finished Goods (which is better in liquidity than raw materials supplies and work-in-progress).

source: Colgate 2015 10K Report, Pg – 100

Below is a quick comparison of Current Ratio of Colgate’s vs P&G vs Unilever

source: ycharts

- Colgate’s current Ratio as compared to its peer group (P&G and Unilever) appears to be much better.
- Unilever current ratio seems to be declining over the past 5 years. However, P&G Current ratio has remained less than 1 in the past 10 years or so.

### #2 – Quick Ratio Analysis

#### What is Quick Ratio?

- Sometimes current assets may contain huge amounts of inventory, prepaid expenses etc. This may skew the current ratio interpretations as these are not very liquid.
- To address this issue, if we consider the only most liquid assets like Cash and Cash equivalents and Receivables, then it should provide us with a better picture on the coverage of short term obligations.
- This ratio is know as Quick Ratio or the Acid Test.
- The rule of thumb for a healthy acid test index is 1.0.

Let us take a simple Quick Ratio Calculation example,

Accounts Receivables = $500

Current Liabilities = $1000

Then Quick Ratio = ($100 + $500) / $1000 = 0.6x

#### Analyst Interpretation

- Accounts Receivables are more liquid than the inventories.
- This is because Receivables directly convert into cash after the credit period, however, Inventories are first converted to Receivables which in turn take further time to convert into cash.
- In addition, there can be uncertainty related to the true value of the inventory realized as some of it may become obsolete, prices may change or it may become damaged.
- It should be noted that a low quick ratio may not always mean liquidity issues for the company. You may find low quick ratios in businesses that sell on cash basis (for example, restaurants, supermarkets etc). In these businesses there are no receivables, however, there maybe a huge pile of inventory.

**Quick Ratio analysis – **Colgate Case Study Example

Let us now look at the Quick Ratio calculations in Colgate.

Quick Ratio of Colgate is relatively healthy (between 0.56x – 0.73x). This acid test shows us the company’s ability to pay off short term liabilities using Receivables and Cash & Cash Equivalents.

Below is a quick comparison of Quick Ratio analysis of Colgate’s vs P&G vs Unilever

As compared to its Peers, Colgate has a very healthy quick ratio.

While, Unilever’s Quick Ratio has been declining for the past 5-6 years, we also note that P&G Quick ratio is much lower than that of Colgate.

### #3 – Cash Ratio analysis

#### What is Cash Ratio analysis?

Cash ratio considers only the Cash and Cash Equivalents (there are the most liquid assets within the Current Assets). If the company has a higher cash ratio, it is more likely to be able to pay its short term liabilities.

Let us take a simple Cash Ratio Calculation example,

Current Liabilities = $1000

Then Quick Ratio = $500 / $1000 = 0.5x

#### Analyst Interpretation

- All three ratios – Current Ratios, Quick Ratios, and Cash Ratios should be looked at for understanding the complete picture on Company’s liquidity position.
- Cash Ratio analysis is the ultimate liquidity test. If this number is large, we can obviously assume that the company has enough cash in its bank to pay off its short term liabilities.

#### Cash Ratio – Colgate Case Study Example

Let us calculate Cash Ratios in Colgate.

Colgate has been maintaining a healthy cash ratio of 0.1x to 0.28x in the past 10 years. With this higher cash ratio, the company is in a better position to payoff its current liabilities.

Below is a quick comparison of Cash Ratio of Colgate’s vs P&G vs Unilever

Colgate’s Cash ratio as compared to its peers seems to be much superior.

Unilever’s Cash Ratio has been declining in the past 5-6 years.

P&G cash ratio has steadily improved over the past 3-4 years period.

## Turnover Ratio Analysis of financial statement

We saw from the above three liquidity ratios (Current, Quick and Cash Ratios) that it answer the question “Whether the company has enough liquid assets to square off its current liabilities”. So this ratio is all about the $ amounts.

However, when we look at Turnover ratio analysis, we try to analyze the liquidity from “how long it will take for the firm to convert inventory and receivables into cash or time taken to pay its suppliers”.

The commonly used turnover ratios include:

- 4) Receivables turnover
- 5) Accounts receivables days
- 6) Inventory turnover
- 7) Inventory days
- 8) Payables turnover
- 9) Payable days
- 10) Cash Conversion Cycle

### #4 – Receivables Turnover Ratio analysis

#### What is Receivables Turnover Ratio analysis?

- Accounts Receivables Turnover Ratio can be calculated by dividing Credit Sales by Accounts Receivables.
- Intuitively. it provides us the number of times Accounts Receivables (Credit Sales) is converted into Cash Sales
- Accounts Receivables can be calculated for the full year or for a specific quarter.
- For calculating accounts receivables for a quarter, one should take annualized sales in the numerator.

**Receivables Turnover Formula = Credit Sales / Accounts Receivables**

Let us take a simple Receivables Turnover Calculation example,

Credit given is 80%

Accounts Receivables = $200

Credit Sales = 80% of $1000 = $800

Accounts Receivables Turnover = $800 / $200 = 4.0x

#### Analyst Interpretation

- Please note that the Total Sales include Cash Sales + Credit Sales. Only Credit Sales convert to Accounts Receivables, hence, we should only take Credit Sales.
- If a company sells most of its items on Cash Basis, then there will be No Credit Sales.
- Credit Sales figures may not be directly available in the annual report. You may have to dig into the Management discussions to understand this number.
- If it is still hard to find the percentage of credit sales, then do have a look at conference calls where analysts question the management on relevant business variables. Sometimes it is not available at all.

#### Accounts Receivables – Colgate Example

- To calculate the receivables turnover, we have considered average receivables. We consider the “average” figures as these are balance sheet items.
- For eg. as shown in the image below, we took the average receivables of 2014 and 2015.
- Also, please note that I have taken the assumption that 100% of Colgate’s Sales were “Credit Sales”.

- We note that the Receivables Turnover was less than 10x in 2008-2010. However, it improved significantly in the past 8 years and is was closer to 11x in 2015.
- Higher Receivables Turnover implies higher frequency of converting receivables into cash (this is good!)

Below is a quick comparison of Receivables turnover of Colgate vs P&G vs Unilever

- We note that P&G Receivable turnover ratio is slightly higher than Colgate.
- Unilever’s Receivables turnover is closer to that of Colgate.

source: ycharts

### #5 – Days Receivables

#### What is Days Receivables?

You may calculate Account Receivable days based on the year end balance sheet numbers.

Many analysts, however, prefer to use the average balance sheet receivables number to calculate the average collection period. (right way is to use the average balance sheet)

4.9 (1,067 ratings)

Let us take the previous example and find out the Days Receivables

Let us take a simple Days Receivables Calculation example,

Number of days in a year = 365

Days Receivables = 365 / 4.0x = 91.25 days ~ 91 days

This implies that it takes 91 days for the company to convert Receivables into Cash.

#### Analyst Interpretation

- Number of days taken by most analysts is 365, however, some analyst also use 360 as the number of days in the year. This is normally done to simplify the calculations.
- Accounts receivable days should be compared with the average credit period offered by the company. For example in the above case, if the Credit Period offered by the company is 120 days and they are receiving cash in just 91 days, this implies that the company is doing well to collect its receivables.
- However, if the credit period offered is say 60 days, then you may find significant amount of previous accounts receivables on the balance sheet, which obviously is not good from company’s point of view.

#### Days Receivables – Colgate Case Study Example

- Let’s calculate Days Receivables for Colgate. To calculate Days Receivables, we have taken 365 days assumption.
- Since, we had already calculated receivables turnover above, we can easily calculate the days receivables now.Days receivables or Average Receivables collection days has decreased from around 40 days in 2008 to 34 days in 2015.
- This means that Colgate is doing a better job in collecting its receivables. They may have started implementing a stricter credit policy.

### #6 – Inventory Turnover Ratio analysis

#### What is Inventory Turnover Ratio analysis?

Inventory Ratio means how many times the inventories are restored during the year. It can be calculated by taking Cost of Goods Sold and dividing by Inventory.Inventory Turnover Formula = Cost of Goods Sold / Inventory

Let us take a simple Inventory Turnover Ratio Calculation example.

Inventory = $100

Inventory Turnover Ratio = $500 / $100 = 5.0x

This implies that during the year, inventory is used up 5 times and is restored to its original levels.

#### Analyst Interpretation

You may note that when we calculate receivables turnover, we took Sales (Credit Sales), however, in inventory turnover ratio, we took Cost of Goods Sold. **Why?**

The reason is that when we think about receivables, it directly comes from Sales made on the credit basis. However, Cost of Goods sold is directly related to inventory and is carried on the balance sheet at cost.

To get an intuitive understanding of this, you may see the BASE equation.

B = Beginning Inventory

A = Addition to Inventory (purchases during the year)

**S = Cost of Goods sold**

E = Ending Inventory

**S = B + A – E**

As we note from the above equation, Inventory is directly related to Cost of Goods Sold.

#### Inventory Turnover Ratio – Colgate Case Study Example

- Let us calculate Inventory Turnover Ratio of Colgate. Like in receivables turnover, we take the average inventory for calculating Inventory Turnovers.
- Colgate’s inventory consists of Raw material and supplies, work in progress and finished goods.

- Colgate’s inventory turnover has been in the range of 5x-6x.
- In the last 3 years, Colgate has seen a lower inventory turnover ratio. This means that Colgate is taking longer to process its inventory to finished goods.

### #7 – Days Inventory

#### What is Days Inventory?

We calculated Inventory Turnover Ratio earlier. However, most analyst prefer calculating inventory days. This is obviously the same information but more intuitive. Think of Inventory Days as the approximate number of days it takes for inventory to convert into finished product.

Let us take a simple Days Inventory Calculation example. We will use the previous example of Inventory Turnover Ratio and calculate Inventory Days.

Inventory = $100

Inventory Turnover Ratio = $500 / $100 = 5.0x

Inventory Days = 365/5 = 73 days.

This implies that Inventory is used up every 73 days on an average and is restored to its original levels.

#### Analyst Interpretation

- You may also think of inventory days as the number of days a company can continue with production without replenishing its inventory.
- One should also look at the seasonality patter in how inventory is consumed depending on the demand. It is rare that inventory is consumed constantly throughout the year.

#### Inventory Days – Colgate Case Study Example

Let us calculate the Inventory turnover days for Colgate. Inventory Days for Colgate = 365 / Inventory Turnover.

- We see that inventory processing period has increased from 64.5 days in 2008 to around 70.5 days in 2015.
- This implies that Colgate is processing its inventory a bit slowly as compared to 2008.

### #8 – Accounts Payable Turnover

#### What is Accounts Payable Turnover?

Payables turnover indicates the number of times that payables are rotated during the period. It is best measured against purchases, since purchases generate accounts payable.

Let us take a simple Accounts Payable Turnover calculation example. From the Balance Sheet, you are provided with the following –

Beginning Inventory = $200

Cost of Goods Sold = $500

Accounts Payable = $200

In this example, we need to first find out Purchases during the year. If you remember the BASE equation that we used earlier, we can easily find purchases.

B + A = S + E

B = Beginning Inventory

A = Additions or Purchases during the year

S = COGS

E = Ending Inventory

we get, A = S + E – B

Purchases or A = $500 + $500 – $200 = $800

Payables Turnover = $800 / $200 = 4.0x

#### Analyst Interpretation

- Some analysts make a mistake of taking Cost of Goods Sold in the numerator of this accounts payable turnover formula.
- It is important to note here that Purchase is the one that leads to Payables.
- We earlier saw Sales can be Cash Sales and Credit sales. Likewise, Purchases can be Cash Purchases as well Credit Purchases. Cash Purchases does not results in payables, it is only the Credit Purchases that leads to Accounts payables.
- Ideally, we should seek for Credit Purchases information from the annual report.

#### Accounts Payable Turnover – Colgate Case Study Example

Once we have the purchases, we can now find the payables turnover. Please note that we use the average accounts payable to calculate the ratio.

We note that Payable turnover has decreased to 5.50x in 2015. This implies that Colgate is taking a bit longer to make payment to its suppliers.

### #9 – Days Payable Ratio Analysis

#### What is Days Payable Ratio analysis?

Like with all the other turnover ratios, most analyst prefer to calculate much intuitive Days payable. Payable days represent the average number of days a company takes to make the payment to its suppliers.

Let’s take a simple Payable Days calculation example. We will use the previous example of Accounts Payable Turnover to find the Payable days

Payable Days = 365 / 4 = 91.25 ~ 91 days

This implies that the company pays its clients every 91 days.

#### Analyst Interpretation

- Higher the accounts payable days, better it is for the company from liquidity point of view.
- Payable days can be affected by seasonality in the business. Sometimes business may stock inventories due to upcoming business cycle. This may distort the interpretations that we make on payable days if we are not aware of seasonality.

#### Accounts Payable Ratio Analysis – Colgate Case Study Example

Payable days have been constant at around 66 days for the past 3 years. This means that Colgate takes around 66 days for paying its suppliers.

### #10 – Cash Conversion Cycle

#### What is Cash Conversion Cycle?

Cash Conversion cycle depends primarily on three variables – Receivable Days, Inventory Days and Payable Days.

**Cash Conversion Cycle Formula = Receivable Days + Inventory Days – Payable Days**

Let us take a simple Cash Conversion Cycle calculation example,

Inventory Days = 60 days

Payable Days = 30 days

Cash conversion cycle = 100 + 60 – 30 = 130 days.

#### Analyst Interpretation of Cash Conversion

- It signifies the number of days firm’s cash is stuck in the operations of the business.
- Higher cash conversion cycle means that it takes longer time for the firm to generate cash returns.
- However, a lower cash conversion cycle may be viewed as a healthy company.
- Also, one should compare the cash conversion cycle with the industry averages so that we are in a better position to comment on higher/lower side of cash conversion cycle.

#### Cash Conversion Cycle – Colgate Case Study Example

- Cash Conversion Cycle of colgate = Receivable Days + Inventory Days – Payable Days
- Overall, we note that the cash collection cycle has decreased from around 46 days in 2008 to 38 days in 2015.
- This implies that overall Colgate is improving its cash conversion cycle with each year.
- We note that the receivables collection period has decreased overall that has contributed to the decrease in cash conversion cycle.
- Additionally, we also note that the average payable days has increased, which again positively contributed to the cash conversion cycle.
- However, the increase in inventory processing days in the recent years has negatively affected its cash conversion cycle.

## Ratio Analysis of financial statement – Operating Performance

Operating performance ratios try and measure how the business is performing at the ground level and is sufficiency generating returns relative to the assets deployed.

Operating Performance Ratios are two sub-divided as per the diagram below

## Operating Efficiency Ratios

### #11 – Asset Turnover Ratio analysis

### What is Asset Turnover Ratio analysis?

The **asset turnover ratio **is a comparison of sales to total assets. This ratio provides with an indication on how efficiently the assets are being utilized to generate sales.

**Let us take a simple Cash Conversion Cycle calculation example. **

Total Assets = $1.8 billion

Asset Turnover = $900/$1800 = 0.5x

This implies that for every $1 of assets, the company is generating $0.5

#### Analyst Interpretation

- Asset turnovers can be extremely low or very high depending on the Industry they operate in.
- Asset turnover of Manufacturing firm will be on the lower side due to large asset base as compared to a companies that operates in the services sector (lower assets).
- If the firm has seen considerable growth in assets during the year or the growth has been seasonal, then the analyst should find additional information to interpret such numbers.

#### Asset Turnover Ratio analysis – Colgate Case Study Example

We note that the Asset Turnover for Colgate is showing a declining trend. Asset turnover was at 1.53x in 2008, however, each year this ratio has sequentially decreased (1.26x in 2015).

### #12 – Net Fixed Asset Turnover

#### What is Net Fixed Asset Turnover?

Net Fixed Asset turnover reflects utilization of fixed assets (Property Plant and Equipment).

Let us take a simple Net Fixed Asset Turnover calculation example.

Net Fixed Assets = $600

Net Fixed Asset Turnover = $600 / $600 = 1.0x

This implies that for every $ spent on the fixed assets, the company is able to generate $1.0 in revenues.

#### Analyst Interpretation

- This ratio should be applied to high capital intensive sectors like Automobile, Manufacturing, Metals etc.
- You should not apply this ratio to asset light companies like Services or Internet based as the Net Fixed assets will be really low and not meaningful from analysis point of view.
- This number can look temporarily bad if the firm has recently added greatly to its capacity in anticipation of future sales

#### Net Fixed Asset Turnover – Colgate Case Study Example

Like the Asset Turnover, Net Fixed asset turnover is also showing a declining trend.

Net Fixed Asset turnover was at 5.0x in 2008, however, this ratio has reduced to 4.07x in 2015.

### #13 – Equity Turnover

### What is Equity Turnover?

Equity turnover is the ratio of Total Revenue to the Shareholder’s Equity Capital. This ratio measures how efficiency the company is deploying equity to generate sales.

Let us take a simple Equity Turnover calculation example,

Shareholder’s Equity = $300

Equity Turnover Ratio = $600 / $300 = 2.0x.

This implies that company is generating $2.0 of sales for every $1.0 of shareholder’s equity.

#### Analyst Interpretation

#### Equity Turnover – Colgate Case Study Example

We note that historically, Colgate’s Equity Turnover has been in the range of 6x-7x. However, it jumped to 37.91x in 2015.

This was primarily due to two reasons – a) Share buy back program of Colgate resulting in lowering of Equity base each year. b) Accumulated losses net of taxes (these are those losses that don’t flow into the income statement).

### Operating Profitability Ratios

Operating Performance Ratios measure how much are the costs relative to the sales and how much profit is generated in the overall business. We try to answer questions like “how much the profit percentage” or “Is the firm controlling its expenses by buying inventory etc at a reasonable price?”

### #14 – Gross Profit Margin

#### What is Gross Profit Margin?

Gross Profit is the difference between Sales and the direct cost of making a product or providing service. Please note that costs like overheads, taxes, interests are not deducted here.

Let us take a simple Gross Margin calculation example,

Gross Profit = $1000 – $600 = $400

Gross Profit Margin = $400/$1000 = 40%

#### Analyst Interpretation

- Gross Margin can vary drastically between industries. For example, digital products sold online will have extremely high Gross Margin as compared to a company that sells Laptop.
- Gross margin is extremely useful when we look at the historical trends in the margins. If the Gross Margins has increased historically, then it could be either because of price increase or control of direct costs. However, if the Gross margins show a declining trend, then it may be because of increased competitiveness and therefore resulting in decreased sales price.
- In some companies, Depreciation expenses are also included in Direct Costs. This is incorrect and should be shown below the Gross Profit in the Income Statement.

#### Gross Margins – Colgate Case Study Example

Please note that depreciation related to manufacturing operations are included here in Cost of Operations (Colgate 10K 2015, pg 63)

Shipping and handling costs may be reported either in Cost of Sales or Selling General and Admin Expenses. Colgate has however, reported these costs as a part of Selling General and Admin Expenses. If such expenses are included in Cost of Sales, then the Gross margin of colgate would have decreased by 770 bps from 58.6% to 50.9% and decreased by 770bps and 750 bps in 2014 and 2013 respectively.

source: – Colgate 10K 2015, pg 46

### #15 – Operating Profit Margin

#### What is Operating Profit Margin?

Operating profit or Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBIT) margin measures the rate of profit on sales after operating expenses. Operating income can be thought of as the “bottom line” from operations.Operating Profit Margin = EBIT / Sales

Let us take a simple Operating Profit Margin calculation example,

Assume from the Sales of a firm is $1,000 ands its COGS is $600

SG&A expense = $100

Depreciation and Amortization = $50

EBIT = Gross Profit – SG&A – D&A = $400 – $100 – $50 = $250

EBIT Margin = $250/$1000 = 25%

#### Analyst Interpretation

- Please note that some analyst take EBITDA (Earning before interest taxes depreciation and amortization) instead of EBIT as Operating Profit. If this is so, they assume that depreciation and amortization are non-operating expenses.
- Most analyst prefer taking EBIT as Operating Profit. Operating Profit Margin is most commonly tracked by analysts
- You need to be mindful of the fact that many companies include non recurring items (gains/losses) in SG&A or other expenses above EBIT. This may increase or decrease the EBIT Margins and skew your historical analysis.

Operating Profit Margin – Colgate Case Study Example

Colgate’s Operating Profit = EBIT / Net Sales

Historically, Colgate’s Operating Profit has remained in the range of 20%-23%

However, in 2015, Colgate’s EBIT Margin decreased significantly to 17.4%. This was primarily due to change in accounting terms for CP Venezuela entity (as explained below)

- Colgate derives more than 75% income from outside of United States. The company is exposed to changes in economic conditions, exchange rates volatilities and political uncertainty in some countries.
- Once such country has been Venezuela, where operating environment has been very challenging for Colgate and economic uncertainty due to wide exchange rate devaluations. Additionally, due to price controls, Colgate has restricted ability to implement price increases without governmental approval.
- Colgate’s ability to generate income continue to be negatively affected by these difficult geo-political conditions.
- As a result, effective from December 31st, 2015, Colgate is no longer including the results of CP Venezuela in its consolidated income statement and began accounting of its CP Venezuela entity using Cost method of accounting. As a result, the company has taken pre-tax charge of $1.084 billion in 2015.
- This has resulting in decrease of Operating Margin of Colgate in 2015.

### #16 – Net Margin

#### What is Net Margin?

Net Margin is basically the net effect of operating as well as financing decisions taken by the company. It is call as Net Margin because in the numerator we have Net Income (Net of all the operating expenses, interest expenses as well as taxes)

Let us take a simple Net Margin calculation example, Continuing with our previous example, EBIT = $250, Sales = $1000.

Interest = $100

EBT = $150

Taxes = $45

Net Profit = $105

Net Profit Margin = $105/$1000 = 10.5%

#### Analyst Interpretation

- Like Gross margins, Net Margins can also vary drastically across industries. For example Retail is a very low margin business (~5%) whereas a website selling digital products may have Net Profit Margin in excess of 40%.
- Net Margins is useful for comparison between companies within the same industry due to similar product and cost structure.
- Net Profit Margins can vary historically due to presence of non recurring items or non operating items.

#### Net Margin – Colgate Case Study Example

Let us have a look at the Net Margin of Colgate.

- Historically, Net Margin for Colgate has been in the range of 12.5% – 15%.
- However, it decreased substantially in 2015 to 8.6% primarily due to CP Venezuela Accounting changes (reasons described in EBIT margin discussion).

### #17 – Return on Total Assets

#### What is Return on Total Assets?

Return on Assets or Return on Total Assets relates to the firm’s earnings to all capital invested in the business.

Two important things to note there –

- Please note that in the denominator, we have Total Assets which basically takes care of both the Debt and Equity Holders.
- Likewise in the numerator, the Earnings should reflect something that is before the payment of interest.

Let us take a simple Return on Total example,

Return on Total Assets = $500/$2000 = 25%

This implies that the company is generating a Return on Total Assets of 25%.

#### Analyst Interpretation

- Many analysts use the numerator as Net Income + Interest Expenses instead of EBIT. They basically are deducting the taxes.
- Return on Assets can be low or high depending on the type of industry. If the company operates in a capital intensive sector (Asset heavy), then the return on assets may be on the lower side. However, if the company is Asset Light (services or internet company), they tend to have had a higher Return on Assets.

#### Return on Total Assets – Colgate’s Case Study Example

Colgate’s Return on total assets have been declining since 2010. Most recently, it has declined to its lowest to 21.9%.

**Why?**

Let’s investigate….

Two reasons can contribute to decrease – either the denominator i.e. average assets have increased significantly or the Numerator Net Sales have dropped significantly.

In Colgate’s case, the total assets have infact decreased in 2015. This leaves us to look at the Net Sales figure.

We note that the overall Net sales has decreased by as much as 7% in 2015.

We note that the primary reason for sales decrease for the negative impact due to foreign exchange of 11.5%.

Organic sales of colgate has however increased by 5% in 2015.

### #18 – Return on Total Equity

#### What is Return on total Equity?

Return on Total Equity means the rate of return earned on the Total Equity of the firm. Can be thought of dollar profits a company generates on each dollar investment of Total Equity.Please note **Total Equity = Ordinary Capital + Reserves + Preference + MinorityInterests**

Let us take a simple Return on Total Equity example.

Total Equity = $500

Return on Total Equity = $50/$500 = 10%

Return on total equity is 10%

#### Analyst Interpretation

- Please note that the Net income will be before the preference dividends and minority interest are paid.
- Higher Return on Total Equity implies higher return to the Stakeholders.

#### Return on Total Equity – Colgate Case Study Example

- Colgate’s Return on Total Equity = Net Income (before pref dividends & minority interest) / average total equity.
- Please do remember to take the Net income before minority interest payments in colgate. This is because we are using the total equity (including the non controlling assets).
- We note that the Return on Total Equity has jumped to 230.9%. This is despite the fact that the Net Income has decreased 34% in 2015.
- This result is somehow not making much sense here and cannot be interpreted as the Return On total Equity that will continue in the future.
- Return on Total Equity has jumped primarily due to decrease in denominator – Shareholder’s equity (increase in treasury stock because of buy back and also because of accumulated losses that flow through the Shareholder’s Equity)

### #19 – Return on Equity or Return on Owner’s Equity

#### What is ROE?

Return on equity or Return on Owner’s Equity is based only on the common shareholder’s equity. Preferred dividends and minority interests are deducted from Net Income as they are a priority claim.Return on equity provides us with the Rate of return earned on the Common Shareholder’s Equity.

Let us take a simple ROE calculation example,

Total Equity = $500

Shareholder’s Equity = $400

ROE (owners) = $50 / $400 = 12.5%

ROE of the company is 12.5%

#### Analyst Interpretation

- Since common shareholder’s equity is a year end number, some analyst prefer taking the average shareholder’s equity (average of beginning and year end)
- ROE can be basically considered as profitability ratio from shareholder’s point of view. This provides how much returns on generated from shareholder’s investments, not from the overall company investments in assets.
**(Please note Total Investments = Shareholder’s Equity + Liability that includes Current Liabilities and Long term Liabilities)** - ROE should be analyzed over a period of time (5 to 10 year period) in order to get a better picture of the growth of the company. Higher ROE does not get passed directly to the shareholder’s. Higher ROE -> Higher Stock Prices.

#### ROE Calculation – Colgate Case Study Example

Like the Return on Total Equity, Return on Equity has jumped significantly to 327.2% in 2015.

This has happened despite 34% decrease in the Net Income in 2015.

Return on Equity also jumped because of the decrease in Shareholder’s Equity because of the much lower base in 2015. (reasons as discussed earlier in Return on Total Equity).

### #20 – Dupont ROE

#### What is Dupont ROE?

Dupont ROE is nothing but an extended way of writing an ROE formula. It divides ROE into several ratios that collectively equal ROE while individually providing insight to most important term in ratio analysis of financial statement

= (Net Income / Sales) x (Sales / Total Assets) x (Total Assets / Shareholder’s Equity)

The above formula is nothing but the ROE formula = Net Income / Shareholder’s Equity

Let us take a simple Dupont ROE calculation example.

Sales = $500

Total Assets = $200

Shareholder’s Equity = $400

Gross Margin = Net Income / Sales = $50 / $500 = 10%

Asset Turnover = Sales / Total Assets = $500/$200 = 2.5x

Asset Leverage = Total Asset / Shareholder’s Equity = $200 / $400 = 0.5

**Dupont ROE = 10% x 2.5 x 0.5 = 12.5%**

#### Analyst Interpretation

- Dupont ROE formula provides with additional ways to analyze the ROE ratio and helps us find out reason to the final number.
- The first term (Net Income/Sales) is nothing but the Net Profit Margin. We know that Retail sector operates on low profit margin, however, software product based company may operating on high profit margin.
- The second term here is (Sales/Total Assets), we normally call this term as Asset turnovers. It provides us with a measure of how efficiently the assets are being utilized.
- The third term here is (Total Assets / Shareholder’s Equity), we call this ratio as Asset Leverage. Asset leverage gives insight into how the company may be able to finance the purchase of new assets. A higher Asset leverage does not mean that it is better than the low multiplier. We need to look at the financial health of the company by performing full ratio analysis of financial statement.

#### Dupont ROE – Colgate Case Study Example

Please note that the Net Income is after the minority shareholder’s payment.

Also, the shareholder’s equity consists of only the common shareholder’s of Colgate.

We note that the asset turnover has shown a declining trend over the past 7-8 years.

Profitability has also declined over the past 5-6 years

However, ROE has not shown a declining trend. It is increasing overall. This is because of the Financial Leverage (average total assets / average total equity). You will note that the Financial Leverage has shown a stead increase over the past 5 years and is currently standing at 30x.

### Ratio Analysis of financial statement – Risk

Risk analysis examines the uncertainty of income for the firm and for an investor

Total firm risks can be decomposed into three basic sources – 1) Business risk 2) Financial

Risk 3) External Liquidity Risk

## Business Risk

Wikipdedia defines as “the possibility a company will have lower than anticipated profits or experience a loss rather than taking a profit”. If you look at the income statement, there are many line items that contribute to the risk of making losses. In this context, we discus three kinds of business risks – Total Leverage, Operating leverage and Financial Leverage.

### # 21. Operating Leverage

### What is Operating Leverage?

Please note that greater use of fixed costs, greater the impact of a change in sales on the operating income of a company.

Let us take a simple Operating Leverage calculation example.

Sales 2014 = $400, EBIT 2014 = $150

% change in EBIT = ($200-$150)/$100 = 50%

% change in Sales = ($500-$400)/$400 = 25%

Operating Leverage = 50/25 = 2.0x

This means that for Operating profit changes by 2% for every 1% change in Sales.

#### Analyst Interpretation

- Greater the fixed costs, higher is the operating leverage.
- Between five to ten years of data should be used for calculating Operating Leverages

#### Operating Leverage – Colgate Case Study Example

- Colgate’s Operating Leverage = % change in EBIT / % change in Sales
- I have calculated the operating leverages for each year from 2008 – 2015.
- Colgate’s operating leverage is very volatile as it ranges from 1x to 5x (excluding the year of 2009 where sales growth was almost 0%).
- It is expected that Colgate’s Operating leverage to be higher as we note that Colgate has made significant investments in Property, plant and equipment as well as intangible assets. Both these long term assets account for more than 40% of the total assets.

### # 22. Financial Leverage

#### What is Financial leverage?

Financial leverage is the percentage change in Net profit relative to Operating Profit. Financial leverage measures how sensitive the Net Income is to the change in Operating Income.Financial leverage primarily originates from company’s financing decisions (usage of debt). Like in the operating leverage, fixed assets leads to higher operating leverage. In Financial leverage, the usage of debt primarily increases the financial risk as they need to payoff interest

Let us take a simple Financial Leverage calculation example,

Net Income 2014 = $40, EBIT 2014 = $150

% change in EBIT = ($200-$150)/$100 = 50%

% change in Net Income = ($120-$40)/$40 = 200%

Financial Leverage = 200/50 = 4.0x

This means that for Net Income changes by 4% for every 1% change in Operating Profit.

#### Analyst Interpretation

- Greater the Debt, higher is the Financial leverage.
- Between five to ten years of data should be used for calculating Financial Leverages

#### Colgate Case Study

Colgate’s Financial Leverage has been relatively stable between 0.90x – 1.69x (excluding the 2014 financial leverage number)

### # 23. Total Leverage

### What is Total Leverage?

Total leverage is the percentage change in Net profit relative to its Sales. Total leverage measures how sensitive the Net Income is to the change in Sales.

= Operating Leverage x Financial Leverage

Let us take a simple Total Leverage calculation example,

Sales 2014 = $400, EBIT 2014 = $150, Net Income 2014 = $40

% change in Sales = ($500-$400)/$400 = 25%

% change in EBIT = ($200-$150)/$100 = 50%

% change in Net Income = ($120-$40)/$40 = 200%

Total Leverage = % change in Net Income / % change in Sales =200/25 = 8x.

Total Leverage = Operating Leverage x Financial Leverage = 2 x 4 = 8x (Operating and Financial Leverage calculated earlier)

This implies for every 1% change in Sales, the Net Profit moves by 8%.

#### Analyst Interpretation

Higher sensitivity could be because of higher operating leverage (higher fixed cost) and higher financial leverage (higher debt)5-10 years of data should be taken to calculate the total leverage.

#### Total Leverage – Colgate Case Study Example

- Colgate’s Operating leverage is higher as we note that Colgate has made significant investments in Property, plant and equipment as well as intangible assets.
- However, Colgate’s Financial Leverage is pretty stable.

## Financial Risk

Financial risk is the type of risk primarily associated with the risk of default on the company loan. We discuss 3 types of financial risk ratios – Leverage Ratio, Interest Coverage Ratio and DSCR ratio.

### # – 24. Leverage Ratio or Debt to Equity Ratio

#### What is Leverage Ratio?

How much debt does the firm employ in relation to its use of equity? This is an important ratio for bankers as it provides company’s ability to pay off debt using its own capital. Generally lower the ratio better it is.Debt includes current debt + long term debt

Let us take a simple Leverage Ratio calculation example.

Long Term Debt = $900

Shareholder’s Equity = $500

Leverage Ratio = ($100 + $900) / $500 = 2.0x

#### Analyst Interpretation

- A lower ratio is generally considered better as it shows greater asset coverage of liabilities with own capital.
- Capital intensive sectors generally show a higher debt to equity ratio (leverage ratio) as compared to services sector.
- If the leverage ratio is increasing over time, then it may be concluded that the firm is unable to generate sufficient cash flows from its core operations and is relying on external debt to stay afloat.

#### Leverage Ratio – Colgate Case Study Example

We note that the leverage ratio has been increasing since 2009. The Debt to Equity has increased from 0.98x in 2009 to 4.44x in 2014. Also, please note that the Equity Capital for 2015 was negative and hence, the ratio was not calculated.

We note that the Debt Ratio in 2014 was at 0.80.

Leverage ratio has been increasing due to two reasons –

Shareholder’s equity is decreasing steadily over the years due to buy back of shares as well as accumulated losses that flow to the Shareholder’s Equity.

Additionally, we note that Colgate has been systematically increasing debt to support its capital structure strategy objectives to funds its business and growth initiatives, as well as to minimize its risk adjust weighted average cost of capital.

Colgate 10K, 2015 (pg 41)

### # 25. Interest Coverage Ratio

#### What is Interest Coverage Ratio?

This ratio signifies the ability of the firm to pay interest on the assumed debt.

Please note that EBITDA = EBIT + Depreciation & Amortization

Let us take a simple Interest Coverage Ratio calculation example,

Depreciation and Amortization = $100

Interest Expense = $50

EBITDA = $500 + $100 = $600

Interest Coverage Ratio = $600 / $50 = 12.0x

#### Analyst Interpretation

- Capital intensive firms have higher depreciation and amortization resulting in lower operating profit (EBIT)
- In such cases, EBITDA is one of the most important measure as it is the amount available to payoff interest (depreciation and amortization is non cash expense).
- Higher interest coverage ratios implies greater ability of the firm to payoff its interests.
- If Interest coverage is less than 1, then EBITDA is not sufficient to payoff interest, which implies finding other ways to arrange funds.

#### Interest Coverage Ratio – Colgate Case Study Example

Please note that depreciation and amortization expenses are not provided in the income statement. These were taken from the Cash Flow statements.

Also, Interest expense shown in the Income Statement is the net number (Interest Expense – Interest Income)

Colgate has a very healthy Interest coverage ratio. More than 100x in the past two years.

We also note that in 2013, the Net Interest Expense was negative. Hence the ratio was not calculated.

### # 26. Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR)

### What is DSCR?

Debt Service Coverage Ratio tells us whether the Operating Income is sufficient to payoff all obligations that are related to debt in an year. It also includes committed lease payments. Debt servicing consists of not only the interest, but also some principal portion also is repaid annually.

Operating Income is nothing but EBIT

Debt Service is Principal Payments + Interest Payments + Lease Payments

Let us take a simple DSCR calculation example,

Pricipal Payment = $125

Interest Payment = $50

Lease Payments = $25

Debt Service = $125 + $50 + %25 = $200

DSCR = EBIT / Debt Service = $500/$200 = 2.5x

#### Analyst Interpretation

- A DSCR of less than 1.0 implies that the operating cash flows are not sufficient enough for Debt Servicing implying negative cash flows.
- This is pretty useful matrix from Bank’s point of view, especially when they give loans against property to individuals

#### DSCR – Colgate’s Case Study Example

Debt Service = Principal Repayment of Debt + Interest Payment + Lease Obligations

For Colgate, we get the Debt service obligations from its 10K reports.

Colgate 10K 2015, pg 43.

Please note that you get the forecast of the Debt Service in the 10K reports.

For finding out the historical Debt Service Payments, you need to refer to the 10Ks prior to 2015.

As noted from the graph below, we see that the Debt Service Coverage Ratio or DSCR for Colgate is health at around 2.78.

However, the DSCR has deteriorated a bit in the recent past.

You can click here for a detailed indepth article on DSCR Ratio

## Ratio Analysis of financial statement – External Liquidity Risk

### #27 – Bid Ask Spread

#### What is Bid Ask Spread?

Bid – Ask Spread is a very important parameter that helps us understand how the stock prices gets affected with purchase or sale of stocks. **Bid** is the highest price that the buyer is willing to pay

**Ask** is the lowest price at which the seller is willing to sell.

Let us take a simple Bid Ask Spread calculation example.

#### Analyst Interpretation

- External market liquidity is an important source of risk to investors.
- If the bid-ask spread is low, then the investors are able to buy or sell assets with little price changes.
- Also, another factor of external market liquidity is the dollar value of shares traded

#### External Liquidity Risk – Colgate Case Study Example

As we note from the below snapshot, Bid = 74.12 and Ask = $74.35

Bid Ask Spread = 74.35 – 74.12 = 0.23

source : Yahoo Finance

### #28 – Trading Volume

#### What is Trading Volume?

Trading volume refers to the average number of shares traded in a day or over a period of time. When the average trading volume is high, this implies that the stock has high liquidity (can be easily traded). Numerous buyers and sellers provide liquidity.

Let us take a simple Trading Volume example.

Average daily traded volume of Company A is 1000 and that of Company B is 1 million.

**Which company is more liquid?** Obviously company B as there is more investors interest and traded more.

#### Analyst Interpretation

- If the trading volume is high, then investors will show more interest in the stock that may help in increase of the share price.
- If the trading volume is low, then less investors will have interest in the stocks. Such stock will be less expensive due to unwillingness of investors to buy such stocks.

#### Trading Volume – Colgate’s Case Study Example

## Ratio Analysis of financial statement – Growth

Growth rate is one of the most important parameter when we look at analyzing a company. As a company becomes bigger and bigger, its growth tapers and reaches a long term sustainable growth rate. In this we discuss how sustainable growth rates are important.

### #29 – Sustainable Growth

#### What is Sustainable Growth?

Company’s topline growth is one of the most important parameter for investors as well as creditors in ratio analysis. It helps the investor forecast the growth in earnings and valuations.

It is important to find the sustainable growth rate of the company. Sustainable growth rate is a function of two variables:

What is the rate of return on equity (which gives the maximum possible growth)?

How much of that growth is put to work through earnings retention (rather than being paid out in

dividends)?

Sustainable Growth Rate Formula = ROE x Retention rate

Let us take a simple Sustainable Growth calculation example.

Dividend Payout ratio = 30%

Sustainable Growth Rate = ROE x Retention Rate = 20% x (1-0.3) = 14%

#### Analyst Interpretation

- If the company is not growing then there can be greater chances of default on the debt. Company’s growth phase is generally dividend into three parts – Hyper growth period, Maturity Phase, Decline Phase
- Sustainable Growth rate formula is primarily applicable in the Mature Phase.

#### Sustainable Growth – Colgate’s Case Study Example

## Conclusions

Now that we have calculated all 29 ratios, you should appreciate that financial statement analysis includes learning about the company from all dimensions. A single ratio does not provide us with a full understanding of the company. All the ratios needs to be looked at cohesively and are interconnected. We noted that Colgate has been an amazing company with solid fundamentals.

Now that you have done fundamental analysis of Colgate, you can move forward and learn Learn Financial Modeling in excel (forecasting of Colgate’s Financial Statements). Dont forget to look at these Finacial modeling tips and also download financial modeling templates

**What do you think?**

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Steven says

Hey Dheeraj!

This is by far one of the best resources I have come across in my search of information. Thank you for all the time and effort you have put into these guides – it really means a lot to myself and the hundreds, if not thousands, of people that come across this gem.

Could you please send over the excel templates? I’d love to dabble.

Cheers,

Steve

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Hi Steven, Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Okyeame Osei says

Thanks Dheeraj Vaidya for the wonderful job. Please can you email me the templates

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Hi okyeame Osei, Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Megna says

Hi Can you please Templates for Colgate ratios and model

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Hi Megna, Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Okyeame Osei says

HI Dheeraj Vaidya, Thank you for the thorough illustration. Please can you email me the excel templates

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

hesty ratnasari says

hi Dheeraj, thanks for this very useful information, Can you please share the excel template?

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

charles oparah says

Excellent presentation and you are selfless. Please send me the templates to

coparah88@gmail.com

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Yashna says

Hi Dheeraj,

Thank you for sharing the Ratio Analysis Guide. It is really helpful. Please may I have the excel templates.

Regards

Yashna

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Rohit Garg says

Hi Dheeraj, excellent article. Can you please share the excel templates for ratio analysis?

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Undraa says

Hi Dheeraj,

It is really good work for helping people. God bless you

Can you send me the templates?

Thank you

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Undraa says

Thank you so much, it was a really helpful article for me to build my first financial model. Can you send me the templates, if possible?

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

kamruzzaman shuvo says

Would you please send me the templates?

1.Vertical analysis (common size analysis) : balance sheet and income statement only

2.Horizontal analysis (Trend analysis) :balance sheet and income statement only

3.Ratio analysis

Thanks in advance.

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Raj says

Hi Dheeraj,

Great work.

Is it possible for you to share the solved and unsolved templates with me please?

And is it possible for you to send me the pdf format of the above material please?

Regards,

Raj

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email. I’ve just sent the templates.

Aditya Jain says

Great piece of work!!

How did you learn in depth as you have IIT background and not commerce?

Could you pls share excel files/templates?

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Pam says

Dheeraj, Very comprehensive analysis with detailed definitions and examples. Appreciate if you could share the excel templates. Colgate was a great example. Great to share in new analyst training. Thank you.

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Chaitanya Srinivas says

Dear Dheeraj,

Thank you very much for sharing these concepts. Your understanding and explanations are of highest quality.

Kindly share the templates at chaitanya.srinivas.certs@gmail.com

P.S – It would be amazing if you can put up some video lectures. We would be more than happy to pay and learn from you…

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

GAURAV says

SIR …

THE DOCUMENT CANT BE DOWNLODED….

KINDLY SEND ME THE SOLVED AND UNSOLVED EXCEL FILE …

THAT WILL BE VERY HELPFUL….

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email. I’ve just sent the templates.

GAURAV says

YOU LINKED EVERY SECTION WITH ONE ANOTHER TO GET A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF IT !!!! BUT GOT NO MAIL AFTER ENTERING THE ID ????

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Kelvin says

Thanks for sharing. Can I please get the spreadsheets

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

stefano says

Great work Dheeraj !

Receiving the template would be very welcome

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

stefano says

GREAT JOB Dheeraj !

Can you please send me the template? Big thanks!

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Navin Raj says

Hi Dheeraj

May I also please have the ratio analysis template.

Kind regards

Navin

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Hi Navin Raj, Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Navin Raj says

Hi Dheeraj

Could I also please have the ratio analysis template.

Thanks

Navin

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email. I’ve just sent the templates.

Rizki says

Absolutely useful! it would be perfect for me if maybe you could send the excel to my email 😀

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Hi Rizki, Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Matt says

Hi Dheeraj,

thank you very much for posting this course. It is really helpful. Could you please send me the solved template for a cross check?

Also, I have two questions:

1) How do you calculate the denominator values for the DSCR?

2) Do you make any corrections in assets or liabilities calculating the debt ratio? I calculated it with given values and averages, but I always come up with results that slightly differ from the ones you posted.

Thank you very much for your help

best regards

Matt

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Hi Matt, Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Dr Ganesh Sanap says

Wonderful Article…Being a healthcare consultant.. I am interested in learning Finance. your articles are very useful. Thanks a Ton.

Kindly share me related excel templates.

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Hi Dr Ganesh Sanap, Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Michael Perez says

Great article can you please share your template?

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Hi Michael Perez, Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Prashant says

Hey! Can you please provide the excel sheet? I’ve tried entering my email address in the field but haven’t received the excel sheet. email ID: prashantsingh19a@gmail.com

Thanks

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Hi Prashant, Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Carlina says

Please email me the template at vinamontinola@gmail.com

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Hi Carlina, Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Nathan Chen says

Great job. Would you be kindly to sent me the excel templates. Thank you.

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Hi Nathan Chen, Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

raksha says

Hi Peter

Excellent article. I was not able to download the excel. Can you please mail me. My email is raks.m888@gmail.com

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Hi Raksha, Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Imran says

Hi Dheeraj,

Wonderful work.

Could you please email me the templates.

Thank you!

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Hi Imran,Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Athar Butt says

Hi Dheeraj. Excellent Work. Please continue with this great work God bless you. Can you let me have the Template plz. Thanks

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Hi Athar Butt, Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Luau albraim says

Wonderful…This is a very useful article. Is it possible for you to share the template with me?

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Hi Luau Albraim, Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Sandeep Kumar Gupta says

You are a good teacher.

Whatever I read till today is excellent and informative.

Is the course material downloadable?

Sir, can you please send me the Ratio Analysis Solved and Unsolved Excel!

Thanks,

Sandeep.

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Hossam Eldin says

thank you v.much MR.Dheeraj it is v.helpful

may i get the templates.please. thank you again

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Shao says

Hi Dheeraj,

Great guide! There are a lot of useful things that I learnt from your posts.

Could you please email me the templates. And the valuation for Alibaba?

Thank you!!

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

nay zaw soe says

Sir, Thanks for your explanation , I am new one for your website, could you send excel template please?

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

GURSIMRAT SINGH says

Thanks for this article , could you please share the templates ???

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Adebisi says

Thanks for these amazing analysis. Could you please send me the excel templates?

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Vikas Kumar Singh says

Hi Dheeraj,

Very nice explanations, it is very informative. can you please send me the excel files for these.

Thanks

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Kashif says

very nice work indeed sir,kindly forward me all the notes and templates on my email with interpretation sir.

(email id:enggkashif03@gmail.com)

Thanks in advance

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Hi Kashif, Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Cristian Badea says

Hi Dheeraj, very useful article!

Could you please email me the Excel file?

Thank you!

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email. I’ve just sent the model.

Cle Royal says

Hi Dheeraj!

I agree with all that this is amazing! I will share much of this with small business entrepreneurs.

I would welcome the excel templates.

Thanks!

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Thank you! Have sent the templates. Please let me know if you received one.

Vishal says

Hi Dheeraj, Thanks for sharing such an awesome explanation Fundamental Analysis.

Can you please send me the templates of the same.

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Hi Vishal, Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

boniface says

Kindly send to me the template in excel

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Emperor says

Weldone ….please can I have the template for ratio analysis sent to my mail

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Ryan says

Hi Dheeraj,

I wrote down something a couple days ago and it seems like my comment hasn’t been through so i was asking if you were ok to send me the templates you have regarding the above mentioned subject.

Thank you in advance !!!

Ryan,

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Ryan, can you please check your email. Have already sent the templates.

AMARILDO says

Apreciaria receber os modelos por e-mail

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Please check your email for the templates.

Pedro says

Hi Dheeraj,

very good and exhaustive job.

I’m new on your site and i’m appreciating the contect. It looks much better than other similar sites.

Could you please email me the excel templates?

Thanks

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Thanks Pedro! have mailed you the templates for your perusal.

nikhil says

Nice explanation. Kindly send me the Ratio Analysis Solved and Unsolved .

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hello Nikhil, can you please check your email.

Farrukh says

Hello Mr. Dheeraj

You are doing an amazing job

Can you please send me the template for this case study,

would be thankful.

Best Regards

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hello Farrukh, please check your email for the templates.

Parag says

Thanks for posting the article ! Can you please share the templates to try it out?

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Have just sent the templates Parag! please check.

Ryan says

Hello Dheeraj, thanks for your precious help may i ask you to forward me the template of this ratio analysis.

Thanks a lot!

Dheeraj Vaidya says

done Ryan!

Emmeldah Mwanakanje says

Thank so much for the precise write up. I have learnt a lot. I am doing self study and would like to get in to Financial Consultancy. May you please send the excel templates to my email.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

done! Thanks Emmeldah!

Abhishek Dey says

Very well explained .Can you share the excel template.

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Quam says

WOW….This is a very useful article. Is it possible for you to share the template with me?

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Quam! Have sent the templates.

Jay says

Nice course Dheeraj could you send me the spreadsheet

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Jay. Please check your email.

Rishi says

Hi Dheeraj,

Great article and very helpful. I would be very grateful if you could send me the excel file.

Thank you.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Thakns Rishi! Please check your email for the ratio analysis templates.

Subin says

Hi Dheeraj

It’s a very informative post . Can you please send me the Ratio Analysis templates.

Amberlene joseph says

Hello Dheeraj,

This is a lifesaver! . Can you send me the excel files?

Thank you

Amber

Dheeraj Vaidya says

🙂 Amberlene! please check your email for the templates.

Ankit khandelwal says

Good Job…Can you send me templates (excel format) of these ratio analysis with interpretation.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Thanks Ankit! Please check your email for the templates

M.R. Parthasarathy says

Thanks, Mr. Dheeraj. Excellent blog. Very informative and easy to grasp.

Appreciate if you could share the excel template of Ratio Analysis

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Thanks Mr. Parthasarathy for the encouragement! Please check your email for the ratio analysis files.

Ankur Banka says

Nice one. Can you pls share the templates

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Mike Oridamisi says

Pls send to my email too sire

Oridamisimike@yahoo.com

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email template for ratio analysis. Thank you….

Samuel Akinola says

Hi Dheeraj, many thanks for the lesson. could you please send me the templates. Many thanks once again..

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Thanks Samuel! Please check your email for the templates.

Debanjan C says

Very informative indeed !

Could you please help out with the information , how to calculate basis, diluted & cash EPS. how is it important to predict a stock price.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hello Debanjan, please check these two articles 1) EPS and Diluted EPS 2) Why PE ratio is important for valuation?

Thanks,

Dheeraj

Herciu Cristian says

Hello…Dheeraj…really a very good and interesting article….would you be so kind to send me the financial analysis templates. Thanks a lot…Have a very nice day…

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Herciu! Have sent the financial analysis templates to your email id.

john sam says

wow more than wealthy , thanks very much

hope to send me the ratio exceed sheet

i will be so glad

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Thanks John 🙂 Please check your email for the files.

tena.us says

many thx for ur precious effort hope u can send me the excel files asap

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Tena. Please check your email for the templates.

Samuel says

Dear Dheeraj,

I’m a big fan of you. Many thanks for the free courses and hints.

Really helpful and mind blowing.

Cheers.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Samuel! 🙂

Krunal Salwe says

Best content I’ve come across in my 3 months of MBA journey…thank you so much

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Krunal!

igor Cincovic says

Great material. Please can you send Excell spreadsheets which are editable?

Thank you

Igor

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Please check Igor if you have received the templates. If not, please ping me.

Edwin Kan says

Good Morning Dheerraj,

Your website in the most informative I have found. I want to be a value investor, I have done lots of search but did not find good site to evaluate a stock before I pull the trigger.

I do not understand a company with negative equity, or higher current ratio and the price of the stock is soaring. I see company with higher debt than equity but investor are buying these stocks.

Do you have a list of ratios or other parameter to asses an investment?

How reliable are those ratios found in google finance or many other sites.

Look forward to your comments.

Thanks

Edwin Kan

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Edwin,

thanks for your comment. We cannot just look at one ratio and then make a judgment on its valuation. Like companies with negative equity or higher current ratio, their other set of fundamental ratios may be sound or it could be that in future there is strong case that they would improve.

Additionally, please note that a good “fundamental” company may not necessarily mean that it’s a BUY. Valuation should be also reasonable. You may use PE ratio, EV to EBITDA Ratio or many other Relative Value Ratios for making such judgments.

Google finance and other similar websites do provide data, but I tend to do my own set of calculation. The primary reason is that most database providers have a standard definition of their calculating ratios, whereas, each company may have a different set of reporting financials. Overall it becomes confusing if I take it from a database.

thanks,

Dheeraj

Salil Jana says

Hi Dheeraj,

What u r doing is incredible. Helping students and professionals to reach their goals. I salute u sir.

It would be a great help if u can please provide the spread sheet.

Thanks

Salil

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Salil for your kind words! have sent you the spreadsheet of financial analysis.

Victor says

You are simply so Awesome! You are doing a great job for the investing community

Sir, can you please send me the Ratio Analysis Solved and Unsolved Excel!

Thank you

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Victor! please check your email for the solved unsolved excel.

Miguel Aragão says

Grear Job Dheeraj!

Can you please send me the file?

Thanks

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Miguel! please check your inbox for the files.

EVI says

Hi, Very usefull article

Can you please provide me with the Excel templates? Thank you very much!

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks EVI. Can you please check inbox for the templates.

Vatsalya M says

Surely, a great article man. Looking forward to read your articles again.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Thanks Vatsalya!

roy says

Hi Dheeraj,

Great works from you. Could you please email me the template so that i can understand this a bit better. thank you so much

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Thanks Roy! please check your email for the templates.

Niranjan says

Amazing article.Can you share spreadsheet for reference.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Niranjan! Have sent you the ratio spreadsheet

Mohammed Nabil says

Hi Sir,

Can you email me a copy of the ratio template?

Thanks

Dheeraj Vaidya says

done! please check.

mahmoud m mubaslat says

Hi Dheeraj

good day

its amazing

Could you please email me the template

i already bought the 99 courses online,non of them listing the full ratio analysis

thanks

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thank you! Please check your email for the details.

Kishore Kumar says

Great work sir.

Knowledgeable material for freshers like me to begin with.

Can you please share me the Ratio Analysis Solved and Unsolved Excel for practise.

Thank you

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Kishore! Please check your email for the templates.

Ricky Young says

• # 24. Leverage Ratio or Debt to Equity Ratio Analysis

one of public company in Indonesia uses formula:

(total Liabilities – Cash & Cash Equivalents) / Total Equity

Please advice for the discrepancy.

Tks and brgds

RK

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hello Ricky, I am not sure why will they do so.

Total Liabilities = Debt + Equity. So in this case, the numerator becomes Debt + Equity – Cash and Cash Equivalents. For calculating debt to equity, numerator should contain only the Debt part.

Maybe you could consider a modified version, wherein you may look at (Total Debt – Cash and Cash Equivalent) / Total Equity. The numerator is actually net debt. In this case, we assume that cash can be used to pay a part of the debt.

Best,

Dheeraj

Aung Paing Paing says

Hi Mr. Dheeraj, what a great work!!! It would be great if you could send me the excel spreadsheet. Thank you.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Aung. Please let me know if you have not received it yet.

Pradeep Kumar Pandey says

Hi Dheeraj,

The article mentioned on ratio analysis is very useful and practical.

Can you please send me the template as I’m unable to download the same.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Thanks Pradeep. Please let me know if you have not received it yet.

Pradeep Kumar Pandey says

Hi Dheeraj,

I am an MBA in finance and have 5 years of experience spread across securities and retail banking and just joined as an RM- corporate real estate,composite banking solution wholesale banking with one of the leading bank of India, I was wondering as to what skill sets do I need to possess to Wade into mid market segment or large corporate, wholesale banking as I don’t have MBA from top-notch ivy league college.

Also let me know if needed to work in particular department /industry to gain the requisite experience to land up a job in mid market or large corporate in wholesale banking as I can see almost all of them possess degree from tier 1 college.

Would really appreciate the career guiding feedback.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Pradeep, I think since you are already working with a leading bank in India, guess your work experience and growth within the bank will take you to the higher level.

tena says

hi plz i need ur material 🙁

Dheeraj Vaidya says

done Tena. Please check your email.

ridhi says

Please send the excel sheets to me. Thanks

Dheeraj Vaidya says

done Ridhi! Please check your email.

Govind says

first of all a lots of thanks for lovely website. i need template ratio analysis for practice . can u please provide template ratio analysis . my email id is gsdav6@gmail.com. once again i would like to thanks for helping.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

already done. Please let me know if you have not received it yet.

Kamal Arora says

This is amazing, could you please share the template with me.

Thanks

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Kamal. Please let me know if you have not received it yet.

GUISSER says

Excellent work, deep explanation and high focus.

Can you send me the template and the article

Thank you

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Guisser! Hope you have received the templates.

Davood says

Hi Dheeraj,

Many thanks for your useful course. Please send me financial analysis template.

Regards

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Davood! Hope you have received the templates.

Manik says

Thank you for the great lesson.can you send me solved and unsolved templates.tks

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Manik! Hope you have received the templates.

David says

great article. could you please send the templete, thanks

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks David. Please let me know if you didn’t receive the templates.

David Osinowo says

This is amazing with a lot of simplicity. please kindly send the complete template to me.

Thanks.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks David! Please let me know if you didn’t receive the templates.

Kevin says

Hi Could you please email me the templates for ratio analysis

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Kevin, Please let me know if you didn’t receive the templates yet.

KP SRIKANTH says

This content on financial ratios is best I have come through in internet,

One thing I did not understand is whats the difference between credit sales and account receivables.

Both numbers represent one same thing is that payments would be received by company in future.

So what is different

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hello,

Credit Sales leads to accounts receivables. Accounts receivables is basically a cumulative credit sale which is yet to be recovered to date.

for example, in 2016 – Credit Sales was $100 and in 2017 Credit sales was $200. Also, assume that none of the credit sales were recovered as cash.

For 2016, Credit Sales = $100; Accounts REceivables = $100

For 2017, Credit Sales = $200, Accounts Receivalbes = $300 ($100 + $200)

Hope this clarifies.

Best,

Dheeraj

Vu Nguyen says

Hi Dheeraj,

Thank you so much for your great effort. I really appreciate the valuable sources that you have shared with us. This blog is incredible, and you are just amazing.

By the way, could you please send me the Colgate Ratio Analysis Excel Template (both solved and unsolved ones)? Again, thank you so much for your contribution and your guidance.

I look forwards to hearing from you soon.

Best regards,

Vu

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Vu Nguyen! Please let me know if you haven’t received the templates yet.

Harvinder says

Really good stuff Dheeraj…The download doesnt work. Can you send me the templates please ?

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Thanks Harvinder! Please let me know if you haven’t received the ratio analysis files yet.

SRINIVASA says

Hi,

Kindly mail me the analysis.

Regards.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

done!

Asif Ismail says

Hi Dheeraj

it is very nice and fully elaborated

can you send the templates please

wish you all the best

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Asif. Please let me know if you still haven’t received the files.

Asif Ismail says

Very interesting and fully documented

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Asif!

Cindy says

Hi Dheeraj!

This is amazing!

Could you please email me the templates.

Thank you!

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Cindy, please check your emails for the ratio analysis excel sheet.

sachin rao says

could you pls mail it to me too. Thnaks

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Please let me know if you still haven’t received the files.

obulreddy says

hi dheeraj vaidya sir i am a big fan of u sir i would like to tnq u, sir if U donT mine can u send me US CMA Materials and which one is best for CMA EXAM Point ofu

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi, unfortunately, i do not have much material related to CMA Exam.

Priyanka Jain says

Hi Dheeraj,

Can u plz send me financial statement analysis templates as well as working notes.

Thank you in advance

Dheeraj Vaidya says

done Priyanka!

Onyeka says

Please can l get a template of the financial ratio analysis sheet.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

done Onyeka! please check your inbox.

isaac says

thank you very much your material is very educative ,is it possible to send spreadsheets which are editable for me to practice im not good with the spreedsheet

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Isaac, the excel sheets are editable. You can modify and check all the links and formulas.

Dion says

Hi Dheeraj, usefull article and comments. can you please send me the excel file? Thank you so much. Have a nice day Dheeraj

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Dion, have sent you the sheet.

Bhavna Katre says

Hi Dheeraj, Many thanks for this article! Please share financial analysis solved and unsolved templates.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Bhavna, i have just added you to the mailing list. you should receive the files shortly.

Sanjay says

Hey Dheeraj, request you to send a copy to me as well

Dheeraj Vaidya says

done Sanjay! please check.

Eric Ayensu says

Good morning Dheeraj, thanks for the great effort you are putting in to help some of us.

I would be most grateful if you could send me the templates.

Thank you

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Eric, please check your mail for financial analysis excel template.

Eric Ayensu says

HI Dheeraj,

thanks very much for this great work, i would be most grateful if you could send me the solved and unsolved template

eric

ALAA says

Wonderful Sir,

Can you please send me the template as well

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Alaa, have sent the templates. Please check

Artem says

Dear Dheeraj,

Thank you very much for such an extensive guide!

Could you please prompt me in what resources could I analyse industry and typical fin ratios, BS, P&L structure for the certain industry for free?

Also could you please tell some database where it is possible to find financial statements of the company, if it is not public.

Thank you for your answer in advance.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Artem, you can refer to Yahoo Finance, Google Finance for such information. If the company is not public, then very difficult to get the details for free.

Jai Jain says

Great lesson, can you send me solved and unsolved templates.

Sir, can you please send me the Ratio Analysis Solved and Unsolved Excel!

Thanks!

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Jai, please check your email for the same.

Anton Fernando says

Great work. I’m a fan of your work. Please, can you email me the excel template.

regards

Anton Fernando

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Anton, have sent you the ratio analysis templates.

Ahmed says

Dear Sir Dheeraj,

you have been doing a great job, I humbly request if you could forward me the template of this ratio analysis. Thanks a million

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Done Ahmed. Please check.

Ahmed says

Dear Sir Dheeraj, thank you so much for the hard work you are simply second to none and to continuously share the greatest wealth of your knowledge with others is appreciated in the strongest terms that I can’t even explain. It is almost impossible to come across people like yourself who is equipped with greatest knowledge yet so humble and hardworking in sharing this great wealth. I admire your hardwork and knowledge. You are great.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Ahmed for such kind words 🙂

Ravi Agarwal says

Hellow Dheeraj,

Thanks for this tutorial, it is very useful! I would like to know if you have the supporting models too? I did not find them on this page. I would like to have for my own practice and consumption. I will be grateful if you kindly share the solved and unsolved versions of these models.

Best regards,

Ravi

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Ravi, please check your email. I have just emailed you those.

Ramtej Bolisetty says

Hi Dheeraj,

Kindly send it to me too. Thank you.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Thanks Ramtej! Please let me know if you haven’t received the templates yet.

Olivier says

Great job Sir,

Can you please send me the template as well

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Done Olivier!

absar says

Many thanks wonderful explanation..great work keep it up

absar says

Also could you please send me the template ..many thanks in advance

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Absar, have sent the ratio analysis excel sheets. Please check.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Absar!

Julia says

Have been searching for sth like this for long. And it’s even better that I could have expected it to be!

Thank you! This guide is really the most comprehensive.

And can I please have the excel template?

Thanks a lot again.

Julia

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Julia 🙂

Have sent an email with the templates. Please check.

Rita Obu says

Dear Dheeraj,

This is an excellent tutorial. Very easy to understand and easy to navigate. Thank you for your generosity. Please send me the Excel templates I would really appreciate it.

Best Regards

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Rita! please check your email for the ratio analysis templates.

ANUM says

can you please provide the excel template

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Done Anum!

jk pahuja says

Nice way of presentation

.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks!

Selven says

Good day Dheeraj,

Great work, very useful and explained very succinctly. Please may I have a pdf version of the explanations and interpretation of the ratios?

Sincere thanks

regards

Selven

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Selven. I have sent the excel templates at your email id.

Ifeanyi Francis Osegbue says

Very informative Sir,

Can I get the detailed excel template?

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Ifeanyi, please check your email for the templates.

Khitindra says

Please share the templates

Thanks

Dheeraj Vaidya says

done Khitindra!

Esh says

Hi Dheeraj

Very much appreciated the commentary etc.

Kindly requesting you to e-mail me the Excel templates including calculations please.

Thank you.

Esh

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Done Esh. Please check your email.

Viji says

Hi,

Thank you for the detailed writeup. Could you provide me with the templates?

Viji

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Vishwas, please check your email for the templates.

Olga says

Dear Dheeraj,

Can you please provide me with the Excel templates? Thank you very much!

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Olga, please check your email for the same.

Best,

Dheeraj

Francesco says

Dheeraj, I must say how grateful I’m for this page.

I had my 1,5y internship at investment banking and your lessons here were more usefull than those over that period. Many thanks and Congrats for your job that enables us not only to perform better at this industry but also to get a deep joy of doing this job.

I’m really enjoying every class related to IB.

Sincers greetings from Colombia!

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Francesco!

It’s heartening to see that you’ve found these resources useful.

Best,

Dheeraj

Andres says

Hi Dheeraj i submitted my email to get the Colgate Template and also for the Terminal Value exercise but i haven’t received anything, could you check this please?

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Andres, i have resent you the templates. Please check.

Manish Chandran says

Hey Dheeraj excellent work man…I too need the template.

Manish Chandran says

Ok I got it

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Manish, please check your email for the templates.

Sami Tasar says

Dear Dheeraj,

Can you please provide me the Excel templates? Thank you very much!

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Sami, i have just sent you the templates.

Rakesh Kumar says

Hi Dheeraj, very usefull post. To validate them with Excel, would you please send me the file? Thank you. Have a nice day.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Rakesh, please check your email. I have send the excel files to you.

Ravi says

This is amazing work. Could you please send the financial analysis template. Would you have a modeling template too that links all 3 statements or just Income Statement. Thanks for providing this.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Ravi! Please check your email for the same. For the linking of the 3 statements, please check this free financial modeling training (colgate case study)

Jason Zhang says

Well done! Dheeraj.

Could you please email me all the templates?

Thanks,

Jason

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Thanks Jason. I have just sent the excel files.

Biju Mathews says

Hi Dheeraj,

Could you please send me the templates.

Thanks so much. Awesome.

Biju Mathews

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Biju. Please check your email for the ratio analysis templates.

Gonc says

Dear Dheeraj,

Its always a pleasure to visit your site to get some good inspiration on what books to read.

Could i request for the financial analysis templates. Thanks!

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Gonc, thanks! have emailed the financial analysis templates.

Samyak says

HI Dheeraj,

Excellent article, Can I please get the template?

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Samyak, please check your email for the templates.

Mariya says

Hi,

Thank you for this tutorial, I find it very useful! I just would like to ask where is the model have you calculated the ratios? I did not find them anywhere. I wou;d like to make a comparison with mine which I have worked on the unsolved version. And I have some more questions. May I ask them here or it’s better via e-mail, privately?

Thank you!

Mariya

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Mariya, i have sent you both the solved and unsolved excel sheets. Please let me know if you have any questions.

Osegbue Ifeanyi Francis says

Hi Vaidya

Can you assist on earning management template?

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Osegbue, unfortunately, i do not have one.

Kunal Thakkar says

Hi Dheeraj,

Thanks a lot.. Good stuff.

Can you please share the excel model?

Regards,

Kunal

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Kunal. Please check your mail for the templates.

Harman says

Hi Dheeraj, very useful article. Can you send me the file.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Harman, please check your email for the templates.

Pradeep says

Great compilation Dheeraj. Thanks for this, can you please mail the excel template?

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Pradeep, please check your email for the same.

disha ghedia says

This is wonderful analysis. Can you please share the template

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Disha, i have just sent you the sheet.

Saruul says

Hi, this course was great, very understandable. Thank you for your hard work :).

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Thanks Saruul! 🙂

farid es says

Very nice Guide and so thanks. I would request for providing excel templates

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Farid. I have just sent you the templates!

ganesh srini says

Hi Dheeraj :

i am a finance professional myself, and i find this outstanding and amazing. so much of knowledge and hard work. god bless you.

may i request the excel templates for my learning purposes?

ganesh srini

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Ganesh, I have sent the files on your email id.

Thanks,

Dheeraj

Mohamed Farouk says

Hi Sir/Dheeraj

Excellent Information, Could you please send me the template and PDF for this lesson on my email Please ? Thank you so much in advance.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Mohamed, have sent you the excel sheet. I do not have the PDF lesson on this.

Mohamed Farouk says

Thank you so much

Dheeraj Vaidya says

🙂

Prince says

Hello Dheeraj Vaidya,

Undoubtedly, you effort is worth being appreciated. I am not being able to download the templates of financial ratio analysis. If you don’t mind, can you please send me those templates?

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Prince. Please check your email for the templates.

Simo Benchellal says

Dear Dheeraj,

Great job, deep explanation and great article. Thank you for the effort.

Could you please send me the templates (solved & unsolved) and PDF of this article?

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Simo. Please check your mail for the templates.

Gagandeep says

Hello Dheeraj,

Thank you very much for sharing your research here. Many students like me who have interest in financial modeling get to learn a lot of things from this blog.

But for practice i am unable to download the templates. Can you please send me the templates on my E-mail ID

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Gagandeep, have sent you the excel sheet. Please check. Thanks!

Sree says

Fantastic Job!! Very useful article

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Sree!

Abraham George says

Excellent post Dheeraj. Kudos to your hard work in educating fellow professionals. Thanks a lot..!

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Abraham!

Aditya Biradar says

Thanks for giving great lesson… Plzz Send ratio analysis solved and unsolved examples

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Aditya, please check your email. Have just sent you the templates.

Ashish says

Hi Deeraj

Can you please send me the templates?

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Done Ashish. Please check.

George says

Hi Dheeraj,

Simple perfect the work you have done on Ratio Analysis / Financial Statement Analysis

Do you have the pdf version ? Pls email this

George

Athens -Greece

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi George, thanks for the appreciation. I do not have the pdf version. however, i have sent you the excel sheets.

Gurdeep Singh says

can you send the same on my email ID

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Gurdeep, have sent you the sheet.

NIZAMUDDIN KHAN says

Hi Dheeraj, can you please send me the Ratio Analysis Solved and Unsolved Excel!

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Nizamuddin, please check your email for the templates.

Sahil Bhatt says

Really great information. In-depth guide.

Can you please send the Excel file on my id!

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Sahil!. Please check your email for the fundamental analysis templates.

issifu says

ver grateful

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Issifu!

Abideen says

This is a great analysis.

Thanks So much. Can I get the excel copy.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Abideen. Please check your email.

mutinta Maluba says

Kindly send me a detailed Ratios in a sheet

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Done Mutinta!

Paresh says

Dear Dheeraj, Your piece of work is one of the finest, simplest and most comprehensive one. Very easy to understand and apply. Please keep up your good work.

Can you please send me the unsolved and solved excel sheet to complete my learning since I am unable to download the same from site.

Cheers!

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Paresh! Have sent you the templates.

George Papadopoulos says

Hello Mr Dheeraj,again amazing work from you.I am student and i want to ask you an analyst question.What means that during 5 years example (2005-2010),a company has a decrease of 5% at non current assets,and an increase of 5% at current assets?

Mika Abraham says

Hi Dheeraj,

Thank you very much for sharing Creator’s knowledge and make it simple for us to understand!! May God bless you!!

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Mika!

Barbara Paong says

Hi Dheeraj,

Thank you very much for sharing. Could you please send me all the Excel Templates together with pdf to my email

Best Regards,

Barbara

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Barbara, please check your email.

Jose salazar says

Awesome work, could you please provide the excel template?

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Done Jose. Please check.

Emmanuel says

Hello Dheeraj, can you kindly forward me the documents, i will really appreciate it. Tried downloading the files you posted on the site, but its not just downloading.

Regards.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Emmanuel, Please Check your email id for the templates.

SV says

Hi Dheeraj

Can u check if Did correct ratio calculations , I can send you my work

Interpretation I am learning how to write, if you can , it would be great

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Sure.

prashanto mukherjee says

Awesome explanation,I must say you have really put in some great effort for explaining jargons of fundamental world.

Thank you so much and look forward to more of knowledge sharing articles from you.

It would be great if you can send over templates on my email id.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Prashanto, please check your email for the same.

Prasad says

Hi Dheeraj

Kindly send me a detailed Ratios in a sheet

Thanks for your contribution

Keep the good work rocking

Regards

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Thanks Prasad. I have just sent you the sheet. Please check.

Mady says

Hi Dheeraj

Kindly send me a detailed Ratios in a sheet

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Mady, please check for the templates. Have sent an email.

Vipul says

Hello Dheeraj

Seasons’ Greetings! Wish you are doing fine!

Then i was trying to download the Colgate’s Ration Analysis excel template(both solved and unsolved excel templates) through the link provided on beginning of this page. However i haven’t received the same in my inbox in spite of providing multiple email id’s.

Thus may i request you to forward me both of this templates to my below listed email id ASAP.

Kindly do the needful at the earliest and oblige.

Best/.

Vipul

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Vipul, have sent the template to you.

Thanks,

Dheeraj

Ololade says

This is fantastic. well done. please can you mail the document to my email. could not download or copy properly. Thank you so much

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Ololade! have emailed you a copy.

saurabh says

Hi Dheeraj,

I remember doing financial modeling module at corporate bridge with you guys. The training modules listed at Wallstreetmojo look interesting. Looking forward for learning some new modules.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

sure Saurabh! Good luck.

moruff says

Very resourceful material…. Kindly send me the excel and PDF version. Thanks

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Moruff, have emailed you the templates. Please check.

stefan says

Hi Vaidya,

Kindly send me the excel and PDF version.

Thanks

hao says

Hi, may I have a question, is that EBIT includes exceptional items or exclude exceptional items?

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Hao, EBIT may or maynot include exceptional items. You need to check the management discussion and analysis section for details of such exceptions items (if included).

Talal says

Hi Dheeraj,this is amazing work can you please send me the Ratio Analysis Solved and Unsolved Excel!

Thank you

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Talal! have email you the ratio analysis templates.

Piyush Akar says

Hi Dheeraj your article was very useful to brush up basics of financial ratios and their applicability.

Please do share Excel templates.

Apart from above, Dheeraj i would like to know how can i connect to you for any other future references.

Thanks!

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Piyush, thanks! have emailed you the templates. You will find my contact details in there.

Cheers!

Kingsley Mwale says

Hai! This kingsley from Zambia liked and enjoyed your article. Kindly send me if possible Ratio analysis solved and unsolved.

Thanking you in advance

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Kingsley. Please check your email for the ratio analysis excel.

Sean says

Hi,

Can you please send me the ratio analysis excel sheets?

Thanks!

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Sean, please check your email for the templates.

stefan says

Hi Vaidya,

Can you send me the templete?

Thank you

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Done Stevan! Please check.

David says

Hello Dheeraj,

It’s my first touch with WSMojo, and I feel really overwhelmed.

How could I start at WSMojo? I mean, from 0 to get the necessary knowledge to break into IB.

Greetings,

David

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi David, thanks! To break into IB, you need to master Excel, accounting, Financial modeling and valuations.

If you are relatively new to accounting, a good place to start is this finance for non finance tutorial. Thereafter, you can pick this Ratio analysis case study to understand the analysis part of accounting. For financial modeling, you can refer to this step by step guide to Financial modeling in excel. Try to practice this too.

for valuations, you can refer to this link – Valuation

Good luck,

Dheeraj

Adeniyi says

Nice article, please send me the templates adeniyiasa@gmail.com

Thanks.

Rajesh Dhanashire says

Please check your email. I’ve just sent the model.

Ibrar Ali says

HidEAR Sir,

I appreciate your efforts.I am ACCA Student.Could you plz send me these ratios in Excel formats.

I will be very thankful.

Regards,

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Ibrar, please check your mail. I have sent you the templates.

Best,

Dheeraj

Ibraheem says

Hi Deeraj

This page has really been a blessing. You have done a marvellous job! Could you please send me all the excel as well. The email download buttons seems to have an issue.

All the best,

Thanks,

Ibraheem

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Ibraheem, have sent the templates to your email id.

Please check.

Sharifah says

Hi, useful article. Please send me the excel template at your convenience. Thanks and Best Regards,

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Sharifah, apologies for this extended delay. Have just sent you the template.

Antonio says

Hi Dheeraj,

Very useful article.

Could you please send to me the financial analysis templates?

All the best

Antonio

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Thanks Antonio. Please check your email for the template.

Jerome says

Hi Dheeraj,

Really amazing templates will be of great use and benefit to me. Please may you send all templates to me.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Jerome! have sent the financial analysis templates to you.

sandeep misra says

Amazing stuff. Kudos. Can you send me all updated templates along with the financial analysis temp.

Thanks again.

Sandeep

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Sandeep. Please check your email fo rthe templates.

Ed says

Hi can you please send me the ratio workbook. I learned a model complete from you and now I model on my own business.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Ed, can you please check your email. Have just sent the ratio analysis workbook.

Hafida says

Hi Dheeraj, its very informative. Can you please send me the templates to my email?

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Done Hafida. please check your email.

Peter says

You are doing a great job for young Analyst

Sir, can you please send me the Alibaba IPO Financial Model

Thank you

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Peter, Thank you! Have mailed you the model.

Peter says

You are simply so Awesome! You are doing a great job for the investing community

Sir, can you please send me the Ratio Analysis Solved and Unsolved Excel!

Thank you

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hey Peter, many thanks 🙂 i have emailed you the ratio analysis excel sheets.

Amine says

Thank you that was really helpful. please i have one question.

why for the sutainable growth rate you used return on owner’s equity and not return on total equity?

best regards

Abrar Tanoli says

Excellent, really appreciate the efforts made by Dheeraj Vaidya…. how can i get these stuff in email.

Regards

Abrar Tanoli

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Hi Abrar, emailed you excel ratio analysis templates.

Vipul Shah says

Hi Dheeraj

could you please send me the Ratio Analysis Solved and Unsolved Excel! Somehow its not working through download mode.

Best/.

Vipul

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Done Vipul. Please check your inbox.

Ravindra says

Hello Dheeraj

Good analysis .. !!

Request to share the financial analysis templates.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Thanks Ravindra. Please check your email.

Jennifer Lim says

Hi Dheeraj, usefull article and excellent study. Please send me the excel template at your convenience. Thanks and Best Regards,

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Jennifer! Please check your email.

JJ says

Thank you for your comprehensive guide! Could you send me excel template through email? Thanks

Dheeraj Vaidya says

Thanks JJ. Have sent the ratio analysis templates.

Ganesh Pawar says

Hi Dheeraj Great work.You making thing simpler to me.can I get ratio analysis excel sheet.

Dheeraj Vaidya says

thanks Ganesh! Please check your inbox for the templates.

Vinay says

Very interesting and ratios and analysis presented in a very apt way. excellent