Recourse in Factoring Meaning
Recourse is a type of Factoring which happens when an entity has to sell the invoices to the client (factor) with a condition that the entity will purchase back any invoices that remains uncollected, this means that in recourse, the factor (client) is not taking any risk of the uncollected invoices.
In simple words, it is the selling of account receivablesAccount ReceivablesAccounts receivables is the money owed to a business by clients for which the business has given services or delivered a product but has not yet collected payment. They are categorized as current assets on the balance sheet as the payments expected within a year. by a company to a factor at a discount. The factor pays a percentage of the account receivable to the company, and later, after collection of the total amount from the debtor passes the balance amount (net of the discount) to the company.
Example of Recourse in Factoring
Suppose Company A is selling $100 worth of goods to Company B on 1st May, who is to pay back on 31st May. Now Company A sends the invoice copy to the Factoring Company, who sends $80 to Company A. On 31st May, the Factoring company collects $100 from Company B and transfers the balance (100-80-5 = 15) $15 to Company after keeping $5 as factoring fees.
Let us get into the details of the two major types – recourse and nonrecourse factoring.
In this, tTA debtor is a borrower who is liable to pay a certain sum to a credit supplier such as a bank, credit card company or goods supplier. The borrower could be an individual like a home loan seeker or a corporate body borrowing funds for business expansion. he seller has to pay back the factor in case of non-payment by the debtorsDebtorsA debtor is a borrower who is liable to pay a certain sum to a credit supplier such as a bank, credit card company or goods supplier. The borrower could be an individual like a home loan seeker or a corporate body borrowing funds for business expansion. . In other words, the seller assumes the risk of any uncollected invoices. Recourse time is the amount of time for which the Factoring company will keep the invoice open. In other words, if the customer is not paying after the recourse time has passed, the Factoring Company has the option to chargeback the entire invoice from the seller.
Let us look at an example to understand this concept.
Company A sells $1000 worth of goods to Company B, which will pay Company A back after 6 months. Company A also sends a copy of an invoice to a Factoring Company, which transfers $850 to Company A on the same day. After six months, the Factoring company collects $1000 and, after deducting a 10% commission of $100, returns the balance amount of $50 (1000-850-100=50) to Company A.
The journal entries for Company A would look like this.
On the other hand, in non-recourse factoring, the factor absorbs the risk of non-payment by borrowers. Since it is riskier, the transaction fees paid to the factor are higher than in recourse factoring.
For the same example explained above, if we assume factor fees to be 20% (it is generally much higher due to the high risk involved), the journal entries for Company A will look like this.
Difference Between Recourse and Non-Recourse Factoring
|Parameter||Recourse Factoring||Non-Recourse Factoring|
|Counterparty Risk||Borne by the seller;||Borne by a factoring company;|
|Advance Amount||High because the risk is borne by the seller.||Low because factoring company has to bear high risk.|
|Profile of Debtor / Borrower||A credit profile has to be evaluated by the seller and is generally easy as the seller already has a relationship with its customer /borrower.||Very detailed due diligence is done by the factoring company before agreeing for such accounts receivables factoringAccounts Receivables FactoringAccounts Receivable Factoring is a financial service in which businesses sell their accounts receivable to “Factor” (a company specialized in purchasing discounted receivables). Also called Invoice Factoring, it is used for raising instant money. .|
- It is a very easy way to advance money on account receivables and build up cash flowsCash FlowsCash Flow is the amount of cash or cash equivalent generated & consumed by a Company over a given period. It proves to be a prerequisite for analyzing the business’s strength, profitability, & scope for betterment. .
- It also transfers the hassle of collecting payments from debtors to a third party so that the seller can focus on its core business.
- It is much cheaper for the seller since factor fees are low.
- Since the risk is not borne by the factor, recourse factoring is readily available in the market and has a faster approval.
- Since the entire risk of default is borne by the seller, the seller must perform proper due diligence of the credit profile of the customer.
- It may heavily affect the financials of the seller if the customer defaults on a large sum.
Before deciding on which type of factoring to go for, companies should depend upon two main factors. Firstly if the amount of account receivable is low, the seller can afford to take the risk of non-payment and opt for recourse factoring. Also, if the seller has a good relationship with the customer and is confident about its debt repayment ability, recourse factoring is the preferred way. Finally, it is very important to define and understand the terms of the factoring agreement clearly. Even in non-recourse factoring, the Factoring Company might agree to pay only if the customer has declared bankruptcy and not if the customer is not paying or has run away with the money.
This has been a guide to Recourse in Factoring and its meaning. Here we discuss examples of recourse factoring along with accounting journal entries, advantages, and disadvantages. You can learn more about accounting from following articles –