Financial Modeling Tutorials

- Financial Modeling Basics
- Excel Modeling
- Financial Functions in Excel
- Sensitivity Analysis in Excel
- Time Value of Money
- Future Value Formula
- Present Value Factor
- Perpetuity Formula
- Present Value vs Future Value
- Annuity vs Pension
- Present Value of an Annuity
- Doubling Time Formula
- Annuity Formula
- Annuity vs Perpetuity
- Annuity vs Lump Sum
- Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
- NPV vs XNPV
- NPV vs IRR
- NPV Formula
- PV vs NPV
- IRR vs ROI
- Break Even Point
- Payback Period & Discounted Payback Period
- Payback period Formula
- Discounted Payback Period Formula
- Profitability Index
- Cash Burn Rate
- Simple Interest
- Simple Interest vs Compound Interest
- Simple Interest Formula
- CAGR Formula (Compounded Annual Growth Rate)
- Effective Interest Rate
- Loan Amortization Schedule
- Mortgage Formula
- Loan Principal Amount
- Interest Rate Formula
- Rate of Return Formula
- Effective Annual Rate
- Effective Annual Rate Formula (EAR)
- Daily Compound Interest
- Monthly Compound Interest Formula
- Discount Rate vs Interest Rate
- Rule of 72
- Geometric Mean Return
- Real Rate of Return Formula
- Continuous compounding Formula
- Weighted average Formula
- Average Formula
- Average Rate of Return Formula
- Mean Formula
- Weighted Mean Formula
- Harmonic Mean Formula
- Median Formula in Statistics
- Range Formula
- Expected Value Formula
- Exponential Growth Formula
- Margin of Error Formula
- Decrease Percentage Formula
- Percent Error Formula
- Holding Period Return Formula
- Cost Benefit Analysis
- Cost Volume Profit Analysis
- Opportunity Cost Formula
- Mortgage APR vs Interest Rate
- Regression Formula
- Correlation Coefficient Formula
- Covariance Formula
- Coefficient of Variation Formula
- Sample Standard Deviation Formula
- Relative Standard Deviation Formula
- Volatility Formula
- Binomial Distribution Formula
- Quartile Formula
- P Value Formula
- Skewness Formula
- Regression vs ANOVA

**Table of Contents**

## What is the Effective Annual Rate Formula?

The formula of Effective Annual Rate can be calculated based on the nominal rate of interest and number of compounding periods per year and it is mathematically represented as,

**Effective Annual Rate Formula = (1 + r/n)**

^{n}– 1where r = Nominal interest rate of interest and n = Number of compounding periods per year

However, in case of continuous compounding, the equation of effective annual rate is modified as below,

**Effective Annual Rate Formula = e**

^{r}– 1The effective annual rate is also known as effective interest rate, annual equivalent rate or effective rate.

### Explanation of the Effective Annual Rate (EAR) Formula

The formula for Effective Annual Rate can be calculated by using the following three steps:

**Step 1:** Firstly, figure out the nominal rate of interest for the given investment and it is easily available at the stated rate of interest. The nominal rate of interest is denoted by ‘r’.

**Step 2:** Next, try to determine the number of compounding periods per year and the compounding can be quarterly, half-yearly, annually etc. The number of compounding periods of nominal interest rate per year is denoted by ‘n’. (The step is not required for continuous compounding)

**Step 3:** Finally, in the case of discrete compounding, the calculation of Effective Annual Rate can be done using the following formula as,

**Effective Annual Rate Formula = (1 + r/n) ^{n} – 1**

4.9 (927 ratings)

On the other hand, in case of continuous compounding, the calculation of Effective Annual Rate can be done using the following formula as,

**Effective Annual Rate Formula = e ^{r} – 1**

**Effective Annual Rate Formula (with Excel Template)**

**Let us take an example where the effective annual rate is to be calculated for one year with the nominal or stated rate of interest of 10%. Calculate the effective annual rate for the following compounding period:**

**Continuous****Daily****Monthly****Quarterly****Half Yearly****Annual**

Given, Nominal rate of interest, r = 10%

**#1 – Continuous Compounding**

The calculation of EAR is done using the above formula as,

Effective annual rate = e^{r} – 1

Effective annual rate = e^{12%} – 1 = 10.5171%

**#2 – Daily Compounding**

Since daily compounding, therefore n = 365

The calculation of Effective Annual Rate is done using the above formula as,

Effective annual rate = (1 + r/n)^{n} – 1

Effective annual rate = (1 + 10%/365)^{ 365} – 1 = 10.5156%

**#3 – Monthly Compounding**

Since monthly compounding, therefore n = 12

The calculation of Effective Annual Rate is done using the above formula as,

Effective annual rate = (1 + 10%/12)^{12} – 1 = 10.4713%

**#4 – Quarterly Compounding**

Since quarterly compounding, therefore n = 4

The calculation of EAR is done using the above formula as,

Effective annual rate = (1 + 10%/4)^{4} – 1 = 10.3813%

**#5 – Half yearly Compounding **

Since half yearly compounding, therefore n = 2

The calculation of Effective Annual Rate is done using the above formula as,

Effective annual rate = (1 + 10%/2)^{2} – 1 = 10.2500%

**#6 – Annual Compounding**

Since annual compounding, therefore n = 1

The calculation of Effective Annual Rate is done using the above formula as,

Effective annual rate = (1 + 10%/1)^{1} – 1 = 10.0000%

The above example shows that the formula for EAR depends not only on the nominal or stated rate of interest of the investment but also on how many times the rate compounding happens during a year and it increases with the increase in a number of compounding per year.

The below-given graph shows the rate of compounding happens during a year

### Relevance and Use of Effective Annual Rate Formula

The concept of effective annual rate is an indispensable part of investing for a financial user since it is the interest rate effectively received from an investment. Further, an investor will be benefitted in case the effective interest rate is higher than the nominal rate of interest offered by the issuer.

From a borrower’s point of view also it is very important to understand the concept of the effective annual rate because it will impact their solvency and profitability. A higher expense towards interest payment eventually lowers the interest coverage ratio for a borrower that could negatively impact the borrower’s ability to service the debt in the future. Further, a higher interest expense also reduces the net income and profitability of a company (all other factors being equal).

The effective interest rate is one of the simplest form of interest rate and in the actual monetary terms, it is basically the rate at which a borrower pays to a lender to use its money. Further, the concept of effective annual rate also encapsulates the impact of no. of compounding per year which eventually helps in the calculation of redemption value at maturity. Normally, the effective annual rate is greater than the nominal rate of interest because the nominal rate is expressed in terms of yearly percentage irrespective of the number of compounding per year.

If we increase the number of compounding periods then the effective annual rate also increases in line with the nominal rate. Additionally, if an investment is compounded annually then it will have an effective annual rate which is exactly equal to the nominal rate of interest. On the other hand, if the investor had invested on a quarterly compounding basis, then the effective annual rate would be greater than the nominal rate of interest.

### Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to Effective Annual Rate Formula. Here we discuss how to calculate Effective Annual Rate (EAR) along with the practical example and downloadable excel sheet. You can learn more about accounting from the following articles –

## Leave a Reply