Fair Tax

Updated on January 4, 2024
Article byWallstreetmojo Team
Edited byRaisa Ali
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

What Is Fair Tax?

The fair tax is a proposed fiscal policy in the United States that aims to replace the current federal income tax system with a single federal consumption tax. The proposal aims to simplify the tax system and create a more efficient and fair one. It stimulates economic growth and increase personal savings and investment.

Fair tax

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It is a regressive tax, meaning it takes a larger percentage of income from lower-income individuals compared to higher-income individuals. Supporters of the fair tax argue that it would simplify the tax system, increase economic growth, and boost personal income. However, critics argue that it could negatively impact the economy by reducing consumer spending.

Key Takeaways

  • The fair tax is a national retail sales tax proposal that would replace the current federal income tax system.
  • The fair tax aims to replace all federal taxes with a single, national consumption tax that is fairer and simpler than the current system.
  • It would eliminate federal taxes on income, capital gains, gifts, estates, and payroll, and the tax rate under the proposal is set at 23%.
  • The proposal has the potential to simplify the tax system and increase economic growth, but it could also disproportionately affect low-income households and create a regressive tax system.

Fair Tax Explained

A fair tax plan refers to a tax system proposed in the United States to install a single sales tax replacing all other taxes. For example, it would replace federal taxes such as personal income, payroll, and corporate tax with a single national sales tax.

The proposal aims to simplify the tax system and reduce the tax burden on individuals. The rate for the sales tax has varied over time and has been the subject of debate, but the proposal generally calls for a tax rate of around 23% on retail goods and services. It would also help cover the sales tax on necessities for households below the poverty line.

The fair tax plan could potentially change the role of the IRS, but it is not explicitly stated that the IRS will be removed. The impact of fair tax on consumers would depend on various factors, such as the tax rate and tax exemptions. It is impossible to determine in advance whether consumers would save more on taxes under the fair tax plan.

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The history of the fair tax proposal in the United States dates back to the late 20th century. The idea of removing unwanted deductions from corporate and personal income taxes had been discussed among political leaders in the 1980s

In 1986, the U.S. Congress passed the tax reform act to simplify the tax system. However, this system had its disadvantages, and Georgia representative John Linder saw an opportunity to propose a new solution. In 1999, during the 106th United States Congress, Linder proposed a 133 pages fair tax reform, which aimed to replace various taxes, including payroll taxes, corporate taxes, gift taxes, and others, with a single national sales tax.

The term “fair tax” was popularized by the founders of “American for Fair Taxation” (AFFT) in the 1990s. The proposal gained national attention again during the 2008 U.S Presidential Elections, reminding the public of its potential impact on the tax system and the economy. Yet, despite the proposal’s long history and continued advocacy, the system has yet to be fully implemented in the United States.

Pros And Cons

Let us see some of its pros and cons.


  • Simplified tax system by replacing multiple taxes with a single national sales tax.
  • Potential for increased economic growth by increasing consumer spending.
  • Increased fairness by eliminating deductions and loopholes.


  • Regressive shifts burden from the wealthy to the poor and middle class.
  • Increased prices for goods and services.
  • Potential for fraud and difficulty enforcing the national sales tax system.
  • It may reduce government revenue and impact funding for public services.

Fair Tax vs Flat Tax

Fair and flat tax systems are similar but have some differences. For example, the fair tax aims to replace multiple taxes with a single national sales tax, while the flat tax proposes a single tax rate applied to all taxable income.

In addition to their differences in taxation approach, fair and flat tax systems have also been debated over their respective merits and drawbacks. Fair tax proponents argue that it simplifies the tax code, promotes economic growth, and incentivizes savings and investment. Meanwhile, supporters of the flat tax contend that it promotes fairness by treating all income earners equally and encourages entrepreneurship by reducing the burden of compliance and tax planning.

BasisFair TaxFlat Tax 
Meaning A combination of all taxes into a single sales tax. A flat tax is when all citizens pay the same tax rate to the government. 
Purpose Implementing a single sales tax by eliminating other taxes and removing the role of the IRS.To implement one rate system in the country. 
Origin 1994 by American for Fair Taxation (AFFAT).1962 by Milton Friedman.
Proposed by On July 14, 1999, John Linger.On December 10, 1981, Alvin Rabushka and Robert Hall.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is the difference between fair tax and tax fairness?

Although both aim at providing an equal tax rate for all, there is a small difference between both. Tax fairness is a concept where individuals want the government to apply the same rate and similar benefits. However, the former focuses on eliminating all taxes and allowing a single retail sales tax that charges 0-30% tax on individuals. This rate will differ for those below the poverty line (0%) to high-income groups (30%). 

What are the three criteria for a fair tax?

There is no universally agreed-upon set of criteria for what constitutes a “fair tax,” as the concept of tax fairness is subjective and can vary depending on a person’s political and economic beliefs. However, some commonly cited criteria for a fair tax include adequacy, simplicity, and equity.

What is the importance of fair tax?

A fair tax system is important because it promotes economic growth, reduces income inequality, and generates enough revenue to fund public goods and services. It is also seen as an important aspect of a democratic society, as it ensures that everyone pays their fair share and helps to reduce corruption and tax evasion.

This article has been a guide to what is Fair Tax. Here, we explain the concept in detail, along with its comparison with the flat tax and pros and cons. You may also find some useful articles here –

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