Green Bonds

Updated on April 8, 2024
Article byWallstreetmojo Team
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

What is a Green Bond?

A green bond is a fixed-income debt instrument whose returns are only applied to qualified green projects. It authorizes investment and capital-raising for current and new environmentally beneficial plans. As per its definition, the sovereign green bond market framework certainly incorporates adjusting to and reducing the climate crisis. 

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Please note that most of these are asset-linked bonds wherein the issuer’s total ledger income endorses its income set aside for green projects. Moreover, International Finance Corporation (IFC) is among its primary issuers with $10.553 billion issued bonds till June 30, 2021, over 178 bonds in 20 currencies. 

Key Takeaways

  • The green bond definition infers a form of the bond instrument with revenues that are exclusively allotted to eco-friendly projects. 
  • It is classified into four categories: standard green use of proceeds bond, green revenue bond, green project bond, and green securitized bond. 
  • The GBP has four basic components, i.e., use of proceeds, the process for project evaluation and selection, management of profits, and reporting. 
  • Its benefits include tax exemption, climate risk control, increased transparency, and engagement of new investors. 

Green Bond Explained

A green bond is an excellent credit fixed income security for investment in climate projects. Initially, the debt obligation was launched with AAA-rated issuance from multinational organizations World Bank and European Investment Bank (EIB). However, the demand for the sovereign green bond has perceived rampant development over time. 

It has presently four types,

  1. Standard green use of proceeds bond
  2. Green revenue bond
  3. Green project bond, and
  4. Green securitized bond 

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Please note that the World Bank Green Bond obtains capital from fixed-income investors to aid World Bank loaning for qualified schemes to alleviate climate emergencies. Moreover, the World Bank has delivered roughly USD 17 billion in this market since 2008 by more than 200 bondsBondsBonds refer to the debt instruments issued by governments or corporations to acquire investors’ funds for a certain more in 25 currencies. 

It signifies the earmarkingEarmarkingEarmarking refers to a fund allocation practice in which an entity, a government, or an individual sets aside a determined amount of funds to use them for a specific goal. One can do it either via collective or individual more of investment bankingInvestment BankingInvestment banking is a specialized banking stream that facilitates the business entities, government and other organizations in generating capital through debts and equity, reorganization, mergers and acquisition, more projects for positive climate and environmental advantages. Therefore, the credit rating agenciesCredit Rating AgenciesCredit rating agencies (CRAs) evaluate and rate the creditworthiness of debt securities and their issuers, including companies and more must certainly increase the ratings for probable green projects and these bonds, particularly in developing economies. 

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Moreover, the IFCIFCThe International Finance Corporation (IFC) is a global financial institution that focuses solely on the development of the private sector in developing economies by providing necessary advisory, investment, and asset management services. It aims to provide people with better livelihoods and other opportunities so that they can deal with poverty and have a better standard of more aggregate issuance till June 30, 2021 (by currency) is the highest in USD (62.8%), followed by the Swedish krona (10.6%) and British pound sterling (7.4%). 

Green Bond Principles 

To clarify, here are the four basic components of green bond principles:

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1. Use Of Proceeds

Every selected green project must offer direct environmental support, to be evaluated and estimated (if possible) by the issuer later on. Furthermore, acceptable green projects comprise energy efficiency, renewable energy, clean transportation, green buildings, and aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity, etc. 

2. Process For Project Evaluation and Selection

The bond issuerBond IssuerBond Issuers are the entities that raise and borrow money from the people who purchase bonds (Bondholders), with the promise of paying periodic interest and repaying the principal amount when the bond more must certainly talk to institutional investorsInstitutional InvestorsInstitutional investors are entities that pool money from a variety of investors and individuals to create a large sum that is then handed to investment managers who invest it in a variety of assets, shares, and securities. Banks, NBFCs, mutual funds, pension funds, and hedge funds are all more regarding the environment conservation aims of appropriate green projects and the eligibility criterion for them. This involves complementary details on methods for recognizing and managing observed communal and ecological wsm-tooltip header=”Bond Risks” description=”Bond risks are the potential risks in corporate holdings and government bonds that could jeopardies your planned and earned returns. Inflation, interest rate, reinvestment, market, and default risk are all types of bond risks.” url=””]bond risks[/wsm-tooltip].

3. Management Of Proceeds

According to the green bond framework, yield management certainly occurs on a combined basis for multiple bonds (portfolio process) or per bond (bond-by-bond process). Also, the issuers must certify total bond proceeds in a conventional inherent operation associated with their investmentInvestmentInvestments are typically assets bought at present with the expectation of higher returns in the future. Its consumption is foregone now for benefits that investors can reap from it more and lending functions for entitled green projects. 

4. Reporting 

Issuers should produce and retain easily accessible recent data on the usage of profits to be revived yearly till complete allocation. Moreover, the annual document must encompass a checklist of proposals to which these bonds’ earnings have been allotted. It also contains a short project description and the designated amounts. 


Going ahead, check out the following examples. 


Suppose that a local builder named Rony invests in the sovereign green bond market (investor) through the World Bank (issuer). Now, he will use this investment to construct green buildings fulfilling the locally or nationally recognized climate-friendly certifications or benchmarks.

This entails efficient water utilization, energy efficiency, usage of renewable energy, and inclusion of recycling systems. In addition, it ensures that industrializationIndustrializationIndustrialization refers to the transformation of a manual labor-based economy to a machine labor-driven industrial more does not cause any climate crisis and the planet remains a safe haven for all organisms.  


As per the lead manager, Austria launched its first-ever green bond worth $4.3 billion (4 billion-euro) on May 24, 2022. Moreover, it witnessed the final investor demand of 25 billion euros, and the country would sustain 250 million euros of its issuance. 

The bond will mature on 23 May 2049, providing the spread of 22 basis pointsBasis PointsBasis points or BPS is the smallest unit of bonds, notes and other financial instruments. BPS determines the slightest change in interest rate, to be precise. One basis point equals 1/100th part of more (bps) to investors over the mid-swap degree. It is down from 25 bps at the beginning of the sale. Austria has recognized the expensesExpensesAn expense is a cost incurred in completing any transaction by an organization, leading to either revenue generation creation of the asset, change in liability, or raising more of just above 5 billion euros each for 2021 and 2022 to finance through this bond scheme. 

Green Bond Benefits

Now, let’s examine some merits of investing in the green bond market:

  1. It fulfills environmental, social, and governance (ESG) requisites and green investment directives.
  2. This is certainly the perfect approach to gain profits with tax benefitsTax BenefitsTax benefits refer to the credit that a business receives on its tax liability for complying with a norm proposed by the government. The advantage is either credited back to the company after paying its regular taxation amount or deducted when paying the tax liability in the first more.
  3. This bond is a feasible instrument to enable the surging number of rational investors in the financial marketFinancial MarketThe term "financial market" refers to the marketplace where activities such as the creation and trading of various financial assets such as bonds, stocks, commodities, currencies, and derivatives take place. It provides a platform for sellers and buyers to interact and trade at a price determined by market more to acquire climate proposals. 
  4. A robust investor demand may bring oversubscription and soared capacity for issuance size for the issuers.
  5. It ensures that the utilization of bond returns in the working capitalWorking CapitalWorking capital is the amount available to a company for day-to-day expenses. It's a measure of a company's liquidity, efficiency, and financial health, and it's calculated using a simple formula: "current assets (accounts receivables, cash, inventories of unfinished goods and raw materials) MINUS current liabilities (accounts payable, debt due in one year)"read more and gained total assetsTotal AssetsTotal Assets is the sum of a company's current and noncurrent assets. Total assets also equals to the sum of total liabilities and total shareholder funds. Total Assets = Liabilities + Shareholder Equityread more is targeted towards a positive cause. 
  6. Most importantly, it may further promote the domestic financial market and economic system more extensively, exceeding environmentally associated schemes. 
  7. It causes better risk evaluation in the otherwise uncertain fixed-income marketplace. 
  8. Above all, this bond refines bond issuer-investor base diversification, prospectively decreasing the disclosure to bond demand variations. 

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

How Does Green Bond Work?

As per the green bond definition, it acquires finances for current and future projects delivering ecological benefits and an environment-friendly financial market. Moreover, this may comprise sustainable resource usage, renewable energy, climate change adaptation, clean transportation, and conservation. 

How To Buy Green Bonds?

To buy green bonds, investors must follow these steps:
1. Gain knowledge from authorized platforms like IFC 
2. Download an application
3. Create the account
4. Assess the budget
5. Pick the appropriate bond, and
6. Request more details to avoid any confusion

Who Issues Green Bonds?

The institution of the World Bank group aimed at the private sector, namely IFC, is the primary issuer of green bonds. Also, it plays a relevant part as an anchor investor in these bonds delivered by the first-time bond issuers. This also leads to designing processes and the its framework

This has been a guide to Green Bond and its Definition. Here we talk about the sovereign green bond market, its framework, principles, examples, & benefits. You can learn more about financing from the following articles –

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