Income Smoothing

Updated on March 26, 2024
Article byPriya Choubey
Edited byPriya Choubey
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

What Is Income Smoothing?

Income Smoothing refers to an accounting strategy employed by companies to intentionally even out reported earnings (net income) across different periods, aiming to reduce fluctuations. Hence, such a technique attracts investors who offer a premium for low-risk investments indicated through earnings stability and predictability.

Income Smoothing

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Although it is not an illegitimate practice altogether (unless not done through fraudulent ways), it involves manipulating financial books under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) or strategically timing transactions to present a more uniform financial performance. While it can appeal to investors, excessive income smoothing raises ethical concerns and may mislead stakeholders about a company’s proper financial health.

Key Takeaways

  • Income smoothing is a financial strategy adopted by companies to make their earnings look more stable by mitigating fluctuations in their net income over time.
  • It is a legal method learned accountants undertake to adjust the financial transactions in the books while confined to the GAAP regulations. However, some companies may adopt illegitimate or fraudulent practices to manipulate their reported earnings.
  • The reasons behind such adjustments include building stakeholders’ confidence, making the stocks less volatile, securing debts, effective tax planning, and strategic business management.
  • Some of its drawbacks include reduced transparency, compromised credibility, and ineffective decision-making.

Income Smoothing Explained

Income smoothing involves strategically adjusting a company’s net income to create a more consistent and stable pattern of earnings over various reporting periods. In business, some periods witness high profits while others may experience low earnings.

Hence, such a technique facilitates companies to curtail the impact of earnings volatility and portrays a stable profit picture, indicating a more predictable financial performance to the corporate stakeholders. Accountants often use their skills and knowledge to legally modify the revenues and expenses in such a way that the earnings look stable over consecutive reporting periods.

One instance is when companies struggle to make profits, then that period’s expenses may be recognized in the next accounting period to avoid low reported earnings in the current period. Some other strategies for income smoothing include:

  • Reserves and profits,
  • Expense manipulation,
  • Cookie jar accounting,
  • Income deferral, and
  • Timing of revenue recognition.

However, it is crucial to note that excessive manipulation or misrepresentation of financial statements can lead to ethical and legal concerns. Moreover, such changes in financial books should be performed under the permissible practices of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) to avoid regulatory non-compliance.

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Many companies adjust their accounting records to secure strategic advantages, as discussed below:

  1. Attracting Stakeholders: Companies strive to portray a stable income stream to reassure and attract investors, creditors, and stakeholders, fostering confidence in the organization’s financial stability.
  2. Strategic Business Management: The company plans its growth when the accounts show a stable profit since it becomes difficult to justify huge expenses when earnings are unstable.
  3. Market Stability: By smoothing income, companies aim to prevent extreme market reactions to volatile earnings, safeguarding stock prices and maintaining shareholder trust.
  4. Securing Debt: Maintaining a consistent income stream aids companies in meeting the financial requirements set by lenders, ensuring compliance with debt covenants.
  5. Tax Planning: Income smoothing supports effective tax planning, enabling companies to manage tax liabilities more efficiently. While the period of high income surges the tax liability up to 40% from 25%, many companies resort to such practices to curtail their tax burden.


Income smoothing is an effective method of transforming the financial picture of a company if performed legally and sensibly. Let us look at some examples:

Example #1

Suppose PQR Ltd., an electronics company, experiences high sales and profitability during the year due to increased demand for its innovative home appliances. To ensure a more consistent financial portrayal, the company strategically sets aside a portion of its profits (say 8%) instead of reporting them entirely within the current fiscal period. This reserved profit acts as a buffer, allowing the company to adjust the financial books during the less prosperous years to present a stable income trend to investors and stakeholders.

Example #2

Due to heightened market volatility, Santander Asset Management recently decided to halt the practice of income smoothing in its funds. Investors typically receive smoothed monthly or quarterly distributions, but the unpredictable market conditions prompted this change. In a letter to shareholders, Santander highlighted the challenges of accurately predicting income levels in the current market environment. 

Following discussions with industry bodies and a thorough review of shareholder experience, the company concluded that discontinuing income smoothing is in the best interest of shareholders. Future payments will now be based on accrued income from the respective share class during the payment period, with no income being held back. 

This adjustment is designed to preserve income objectives without adversely affecting shareholders. The decision comes on the grounds of heightened global market volatility driven by rising inflation and swift interest rate hikes by central banks. Notably, retail investors have responded cautiously, with fund sales experiencing a record year of net redemptions totaling £26 bn in 2022, according to the data from the Investment Association. 

Advantages And Disadvantages

The income smoothing practice serves various purposes, as we have already discussed. However, along with the desired outcome, it often leads to a countereffect that may adversely affect the business immediately or in the long run. Let us now go through these benefits and limitations:

#1 – Advantages

  • Financial Reporting Accuracy: Income smoothing strengthens the confidence of stakeholders in the company by offering a more stable and predictable financial performance, reducing uncertainties for investors and creditors.
  • Strategic Planning: A smoothed income stream empowers management to make well-informed, effective long-term plans, helping the company launch new projects, make capital investments, and adapt to dynamic market conditions.
  • Heightens Creditworthiness: Consistent income patterns positively impact a company’s creditworthiness, streamlining the process of securing loans and accessing financial resources.
  • Capital Market Access: A uniform earnings pattern can attract more capital investment and growth opportunities.
  • Risk Mitigation: Income smoothing serves as a tool to mitigate the impact of economic fluctuations, providing a buffer against sudden financial downturns.
  • Tax Management: It even aids in tax planning and savings during the high earning periods through retained profits.
  • Avoid Stock Volatility: Companies with consistent and stable profits often have a stable stock price and less risk.
  • Better Investor Relations: Companies practicing such smoothing are able to attract and secure investors seeking stability, presenting a reliable picture of financial health over time.

#2 – Disadvantages

  • Financial Distortion: Income smoothing, artificially stabilizing a company’s income, can disrupt the accurate financial picture, making it challenging for investors to assess performance and risk accurately.
  • Market Inefficiencies: Investors rely on accurate financial information for decision-making, while such manipulated accounting records may adversely affect market efficiencies.
  • Credibility Risk: If the stakeholders consider it to be a misleading practice, then such smoothing can erode the credibility of a company over time, leading to distrust among investors, creditors, and other stakeholders.
  • Regulatory Risks: Regulators may interpret smoothing of earnings as an attempt to manipulate financial statements if performed illegally, exposing companies to legal and regulatory consequences.
  • Valuation Challenges: Over time, investors find it challenging to accurately value a company with a history of smoothed earnings, thus not reflecting the actual economic position of the firm.
  • Short-Term Focus: Such a strategy is often adopted to realize short-term stability at the expense of long-term value creation, potentially impacting the company’s overall growth.
  • Hiding the Truth: This practice may cover up the actual volatility of a company’s operations and poor financial health, which the stakeholders should be aware of.
  • Capital Allocation Impact: Smoothing can potentially cause higher capital investment than what is affordable by a company’s actual financial position.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. Is income smoothing ethical?

Ethical practices in income smoothing are contingent on the techniques utilized and management’s intention. It involves legitimate efforts to reduce volatility for a more precise characterization of a firm’s financial status. However, if employed to manipulate financial statements or deceive stakeholders, it becomes unethical and may breach accounting standards. 

2. Do government subsidies affect income smoothing?

The companies that receive subsidies may engage in income smoothing to portray a more stable financial image, particularly if subsidy disbursement is associated with financial performance.

3. Does income smoothing improve earnings informativeness?

Although income smoothing can contribute to financial stability, it may compromise the transparency and reliability of financial statements, thereby reducing the informativeness of earnings. The influence of income smoothing on informativeness depends upon factors such as the degree of adjustments and the specific methods employed.

4. How to prevent income smoothing?

Income smoothing is not always bad; despite avoiding illegal ways, it is crucial to promote transparent financial reporting, adhere to accounting standards, and maintain consistency in revenue recognition methods. Moreover, implementing strong internal controls, independent audits, and fostering an ethical financial management culture within the organization can further help prevent such practices.

This article has been a guide to what is Income Smoothing. Here, we explain the concept along with its examples, reasons, advantages, and disadvantages. You may also take a look at the useful articles below –

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