People’s Bank Of China

Updated on July 1, 2024
Article byGayatri Ailani
Edited byAaron Crowe
Reviewed byDheeraj Vaidya, CFA, FRM

What Is The People’s Bank Of China (PBoC)?

People’s Bank of China (PBoC) is the central bank of the People’s Republic of China. It is responsible for formulating and implementing monetary policy, regulating financial institutions, and maintaining stability in the Chinese financial system through oversight and intervention.

People's Bank Of China

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It holds significant influence over China’s economy by setting interest rates, managing inflation, and ensuring financial stability. As the central bank, it regulates commercial banks, oversees monetary policy, and plays a crucial role in maintaining the country’s economic growth and financial well-being.

Key Takeaways

  • People’s Bank of China (PBoC) is China’s central bank, overseeing monetary policy, financial regulation, currency management, stability, and global financial representation.
  • Established in 1948, PBoC initially handled all financial transactions, evolving through reforms to focus on monetary policy, financial oversight, and international engagement, becoming a cornerstone of China’s economic structure.
  • PBoC serves as the critical authority for national monetary policy and financial stability while also operating as a commercial bank, offering services under regulatory frameworks set by PBoC and other governing bodies.

People’s Bank Of China Explained

People’s Bank of China (PBoC) operates as the central bank of the People’s Republic of China. It is mandated to formulate and execute monetary policy under the direction of the State Council. Its responsibilities extend beyond monetary policy to include managing China’s foreign reserves, shaping exchange rate policies, regulating financial institutions, mitigating systemic financial risks, and ensuring overall financial stability.

PBoC functions independently, as outlined in the People’s Republic of China People’s Bank of China Law, without interference from local governments, social groups, or individuals. As one of the 25 cabinet-level departments constituting the State Council, it holds significant authority and influence over China’s economic landscape.

Some of the functions of the PBoC include the following:

  1. Management of Foreign Reserves: PBoC oversees China’s vast foreign exchange reserves, ensuring their prudent management and strategic utilization to support the country’s economic interests and maintain financial stability.
  2. Exchange Rate Policy Formulation: PBoC plays a central role in formulating and implementing exchange rate policies, including decisions related to the valuation and management of China’s currency, the Renminbi (RMB), in both domestic and international markets.
  3. Regulation of Financial Institutions: PBoC regulates and supervises financial institutions operating within China, including commercial banks, insurance companies, securities firms, and other financial entities. This oversight aims to ensure the safety, soundness, and integrity of the financial system.


Established in 1948, the PBoC initially held a dual role as both the central bank and commercial bank, controlling all financial transactions in the country. Under direct control of the Ministry of Finance, it managed the entire banking system, predominantly supporting government-led national planning by allocating credit.

However, Deng Xiaoping’s economic reforms in 1979 marked a significant shift in PBoC’s functions. These reforms aimed to develop a socialist market economy, prompting formal recognition of PBoC as the central bank in 1984. Consequently, its commercial banking functions were transferred to four state-owned commercial banks, known as the Big Four. At the same time, PBoC retained control over monetary policy, money supply, and foreign exchange management.

Further reforms in 1995, through the law of the PBoC, aimed to modernize and strengthen the central bank’s role. These reforms were modeled after the Federal Reserve System, granting PBoC independence from other financial institutions and local governments. This independence allowed the PBoC to formulate and implement monetary policy autonomously, without external interference.

Additionally, the 1995 reforms extended PBoC’s regulatory powers, enabling it to oversee and supervise commercial banks more effectively. However, challenges arose due to the influence of local authorities on credit policies at the provincial and city levels. Regional offices came into existence in 1998 to reduce local interference and ensure consistent implementation of central bank policies.

In 2003, following China’s entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO), PBoC functions witnessed further adjustments. The establishment of the China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) eased PBoC’s supervisory responsibilities. It allowed it to focus more on macroeconomic management, exchange rate policies, and reserve management. This shift reinforced the PBoC’s role as the primary authority in China’s financial system, responsible for maintaining monetary stability, managing foreign reserves, and overseeing the banking sector’s operations.


The PBoC operates through a diverse array of departments. Each of them is dedicated to specific functions essential for the effective functioning of the Chinese financial system:

  1. Monetary Policy Formulation and Implementation: PBoC monetary policies aim at achieving macroeconomic objectives such as price stability, economic growth, and full employment.
  2. Financial Sector Reform and Planning: It leads initiatives for reforming the financial sector and devises strategic plans to foster its development.
  3. Legislative Development: PBoC contributes to the creation, enhancement, and enforcement of laws and regulations crucial for its central banking operations.
  4. Currency Management: PBoC issues and oversees the circulation of the Chinese currency, Renminbi (RMB).
  5. Financial Sector Modernization: It designs and implements plans to modernize and digitize various aspects of the Chinese financial sector.
  6. Data Collection and Analysis: PBoC gathers relevant economic data for macroeconomic analysis and forecasting and ensures its dissemination to the public.
  7. Lender of Last Resort: In financial distress, the PBoC acts as a lender of last resort to provide support and stability to financial institutions.
  8. Market Supervision: PBoC supervises and manages interbank lending markets and other financial markets to maintain stability and integrity.
  9. Exchange Rate Management: It develops and implements exchange rate policies for the Chinese Yuan and monitors cross-border capital flows.
  10. Foreign Exchange Reserves Management: PBoC holds, manages, and operates the state’s foreign exchange reserves.
  11. Credit Sector Oversight: It manages the credit sector and is responsible for maintaining a functional social credit system.
  12. National Payments System: PBoC ensures the smooth operation of the national payments system, facilitating efficient financial transactions.

People’s Bank Of China Vs Bank Of China

The distinctions between the People’s Bank of China (PBoC) and the Bank of China (BOC) are as follows:

People’s Bank of ChinaBank of China
PBoC is the central bank of the People’s Republic of China. It is responsible for formulating and implementing monetary policy, regulating financial institutions, and maintaining financial stability.BOC is one of the largest commercial banks in China and operates as a state-owned enterprise. It provides a wide range of banking services to individuals, businesses, and government entities, including deposit-taking, lending, investment banking, and wealth management.
PBoC issues and manages the Chinese currency, Renminbi (RMB), and holds the country’s foreign exchange reserves. It represents China in international financial organizations and activities.BOC operates domestically and internationally, with branches and subsidiaries in various countries around the world.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Who owns the People’s Bank of China?

The People’s Bank of China (PBoC) is owned by the government of the People’s Republic of China. As the central bank, it operates under the authority of the State Council. It functions as a critical institution in managing the country’s monetary policy, financial system, and currency reserves to support economic stability and growth.

What is the law of the People’s Republic of China on commercial banks?

The law of the PBoC on commercial banks regulates the establishment, operation, and supervision of commercial banks within the country. It sets forth requirements for capitalization, governance, risk management, and reporting standards, ensuring stability and integrity of the banking sector.

How Many Banks Were Merged to Form the People’s Bank of China?

The PBOC was established in 1948. The Central Bank of China and several other banks, including the Huabei Bank, Beihai Bank, Xibei Farmer Bank, Northeastern Farmer Bank, and East China Farmer Bank merged to form PBoC.

This article has been a guide to what is People’s Bank Of China (PBoC). We explain the concept with its history, comparison with Bank of China, & responsibilities. You may also find some useful articles here –

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