Full Form of NBFC – Non-Banking Financial Companies
The full form of NBFC is Non-Banking Financial Companies. NBFC refers to non-banking financial companies which are responsible for offering various services similar to that of the banking companies like providing of loans/advances to the businesses and others, hire-purchase, leasing, acquisition of various securities such as shares, debentures, bonds, stocks, etc., issued by the government authorities or local authorities or any other marketable securities of similar nature but these companies do not have banking license so they differ from banks in certain aspects.
- NBFC plays a significant role in building the nation and financial inclusion as it provides funds/Loans to those sections of the unbanked society, especially small enterprises.
- It is a major source of funding for new start-ups and entrepreneurs, especially where the government focuses on the promotion of entrepreneurship so that the job seekers can be replaced with the job creators.
- They play a pivotal role in infrastructure development, generation of employment, transport development, creation of wealth opportunities, providing financial support to the financially weak sections of society, etc.
Officially Non-Banking Financial Companies are classified under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act 2010, which is the financial reform legislation that was passed in the year 2010 in response to the financial crisis that occurred in 2008. As per the act, NBFC’s are the companies that are predominantly engaged in the financial activities in case their more than 85% consolidated assets or annual gross revenues are of financial nature. By this, a wide range of companies came into this category, which offers services like that of the banks like Mortgage lending companies, Insurance companies, private equity funds, Investment banksInvestment BanksInvestment banking is a specialized banking stream that facilitates the business entities, government and other organizations in generating capital through debts and equity, reorganization, mergers and acquisition, etc., money market funds, hedge fundsHedge FundsA hedge fund is an aggressively invested portfolio made through pooling of various investors and institutional investor’s fund. It supports various assets providing high returns in exchange for higher risk through multiple risk management and hedging techniques., peer-to-peer lenders, etc.
The various objectives of Non-Banking Financial Companies are:
- The NBFCs have the objective of creating more job opportunities in the country by lending loans to private industries and SMEs, thereby increasing business, which raises the demand for manpower creating employment.
- They also help in mobilizing funds by the rotation of resources, distribution of assets, and income regulation, thereby shaping economic development.
- It is to strengthen the financial marketFinancial MarketThe term "financial market" refers to the marketplace where activities such as the creation and trading of various financial assets such as bonds, stocks, commodities, currencies, and derivatives take place. It provides a platform for sellers and buyers to interact and trade at a price determined by market forces. as it provides funds to the small-sized enterprises which fulfill their liquidity requirements of NBFCs.
Types of NBFC
The two types of Non-Banking Financial Companies are:
- Deposit Accepting: These are the NBFC’s which accept deposits from the public, including companies like loan companies, investment companies, asset financeAsset FinanceAsset financing is defined as a loan taken out by an organization using balance sheet assets as collateral, such as land and buildings, vehicles, machinery, trade receivables, and short-term investments. The asset's value is divided into regular payment intervals of the asset's unpaid portion plus interest. companies, etc.
- Non-deposit Accepting: These are the NBFC’s which do not accept deposits from the public, and it is allowed only to lend the money to the public and take the repayment against such loans.
Functions of NBFC
The functions of Non-Banking Financial Companies are provided as follows:
- Providing loans/advances to the businesses and other persons.
- Acquisition of various types of securities such as shares, debenturesDebenturesDebentures refer to long-term debt instruments issued by a government or corporation to meet its financial requirements. In return, investors are compensated with an interest income for being a creditor to the issuer., bondsBondsBonds refer to the debt instruments issued by governments or corporations to acquire investors’ funds for a certain period., stocks, etc., issued by the government authorities or local authorities or any other type of marketable securities.
- Offering various other services to its customers apart from giving loans like currency exchange, underwriting, money market instrumentsMoney Market InstrumentsThe money market is a financial market wherein short-term assets and open-ended funds are traded between institutions and traders., retirement planning, merger activities, etc.
Examples of NBFC
There are various examples of Non-Banking Financial Companies in the present world. Fidelity Investments, a multinational financial service company based in Boston, Massachusetts, is an example of the Non-Banking Financial Companies, one of the world-level companies’ largest asset managers. It provides fund distribution, retirement services, investment advice, cryptocurrency, insurance facilities, manages different mutual funds, and operates a brokerage firm. All the other companies like Mortgage lenders, Insurance companies, private equity funds, Investment banks, money market funds, hedge funds, P2P lenders, etc. are examples of the NBFC.
NBFC vs Banks
NBFC and banks differ from each other on various parameters, and some of the differences are as follows:
- Non-Banking Financial Companies cannot accept demand deposits from the public. It can accept only deposits payable at the end of the tenure, whereas banks can accept all types of deposits from the public, both payable on demand and at the end of the tenure.
- An NBFC cannot engage in payments by its customer to the third party on behalf of them, whereas banks can permit their customer to in payments by way of issuing checkbooks.
- The deposits carried by NBFC don’t have the insurance, whereas the deposits with banks carry insurance.
- NBFC can help in wealth management for stocks and shares.
- They usually provide credit, such as loans and credit facilities.
- They also can issue Commercial papersCommercial PapersCommercial Paper is a money market instrument that is used to obtain short-term funding and is often issued by investment-grade banks and corporations in the form of a promissory note., Certificates of DepositCertificates Of DepositA certificate of deposit (CD) is an investment instrument mostly issued by banks, requiring investors to lock in funds for a fixed term to earn high returns. CDs essentially require investors to set aside their savings and leave them untouched for a fixed period., bankers agreements, etc.
- NBFC can substitute the bank in case the banks are not helpful.
- Non-Banking Financial Companies are not allowed to take deposits that are payable in demand.
- The restrictions around NBFC are more stringent when compared to the bank.
- Only those NBFC which are registered under the appropriate act and are authorized may allow accepting the deposits from the public.
- The deposits which are received from the public are not insured; hence there is less security for the deposits when compared to the banks.
- It is not allowed to make payments or do settlements for its customers.
- It cannot issue the cheques that are drawn on it.
An NBFC can be regarded as a non-banking financial company that does not hold a banking license but works like a bank as it provides all of the services which are similar to the services provided by the banks. Although these companies do not have a banking license, they are required to follow banking regulations.
This has been a guide to the Full Form of NBFC, i.e., (Non-Banking Financial Companies). Here we discuss types, functions, and examples of NBFC along with their differences. You may refer to the following articles to learn more about finance –