What are Period Costs?
Period costs are apportioned as expenses against the revenue for the given period in which they are incurred. Period costs are also termed as a Period expense, time cost, capacity costs, etc. Examples of period costs are General Administration cost, sales clerk Salary, depreciation of office facilities, etc.
Based on association, costs can be classified into the product and period expenses. Product costs are a cost that is allocated to products and are to be formed part of inventory valuation. Period Costs are the cost not associated with production and should not form part of inventory valuation. Generally, unavoidable costs are considered as period expenses.
Types of Period Costs
Period Expenses are classified into:
- Historical Expense – Expenses relating to the past period. Such costs are already incurred and are irrelevant while decision making.
- Current Expense – Expenses relating to the present period.
- Pre-determined Expense– Expenses based on estimates of a future period. Such costs are computed in advance for preparation of the budget, by considering all the factors that can affect such cost. Such costs are to be kept well in mind while doing the decision making
Period Cost Formula
There is no clear cut formula for calculating the Period cost. There is even no fixed approach in identifying the period expense in all the particulars. In fact, Management accountant has to carefully evaluate the time cost and check whether the same will form part of an income statement or not.
Time cost forms a major portion of indirect costs, hence very much critical for running the business.
Examples of Period Cost
Below are the Examples of the period expense.
Example #1 – Fixed Cost
The best example of period expense is Fixed Cost. Fixed cost are costs, which remain constant, for a given period, irrespective of the level of output. Generally, fixed cost consists of fixed production overhead and Administration Overhead. Fixed cost per unit of output will vary inversely with changes in the level of output. As output increases, fixed cost decreases and vice – versa. Fixed cost is treated as a time cost and therefore charged to Profit and Loss Account
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It will keep on accruing and an entity will have to bear the same, without any fact of earning a profit or any revenue. Examples of Fixed cost are rent, salary, insurance, etc.
Example #2 – Usage of Period Expense in Inventory Valuation
Valuation of inventory can be done by either weighted average or FIFO method. Weighted-average costing mixes current period expenses with the costs from prior periods that are in beginning inventory. This mixing makes it impossible for managers to know the current period expense of manufacturing the product. First-in, first-out (FIFO) costing addresses this problem by assuming that the first units worked on are the first units transferred out of a production department.
FIFO separates current period expenses from those in beginning inventory. In FIFO costing, the costs in beginning inventory are transferred out in a lump sum. FIFO costing does not mix costs from prior periods (that are in beginning inventory) with a current period expense.
Example #3 – Capacity Cost
Resources consumed in a period to provide or maintain the organization’s capacity to produce or sell are known as capacity costs or supportive overheads. Capacity costs further divide into standby costs and enabling costs. Standby costs will continue if the firm shuts down operations or facilities temporarily. Examples are depreciation, property taxes, and some executive salaries.
The firm will not incur enabling costs if operations shut down, but will incur them if operations take place at all. Some of these will likely be constant over the entire output range; others will likely vary in steps. For example, a single-shift operation might require only one departmental supervisor, but the operation of a second shift will require a second supervisor.
Reporting of Period Cost
Time Costs are reported based on
- Revenue for which they are incurred
- Tenure got over and needed to be charged to profit and loss account
- Accrual for a specific accounting period
Disclosure in Financial Statement
Period expenses appear on the income statement with an appropriate caption for the item in the period when the cost is incurred or recognized.
Relevance for Decision-making
For Decision making all period expenses are irrelevant. However, in below mentioned exceptional situations, it is needed to be considered for decision-making:
- When they are specifically incurred for any contract
- When they are incremental in nature
- When they are avoidable or discretionary
- When they are incurred in lieu of another
If one wants to summarize, cost classifications have been proved useful to management. Cost analysts have developed a number of the different costs that helps them in the classification of costs for a variety of managerial applications. Different purposes require different cost constructs.
Time cost, being part of cost classification based on association, helps management to understand the burden of cost that firm is facing irrespective of the fact that company is working or not, earning any kind of profit or not, the company is utilizing full capacity or not. It helps management in knowing what are the irrelevant unavoidable costs are there, that will be always to be considered to reach the breakeven point.
This has been a guide to what are Period Costs and its definition. Here we discuss the types and formula of period cost along with examples & its relevance for decision making. You can learn more about accounting from the following articles –